BIOCHEM CHAPTER 12- Metabolism and Bioenergetics .docx - Chapter 12 Metabolism The macromolecules in food are hydrolyzed(broken down by reactions with

BIOCHEM CHAPTER 12- Metabolism and Bioenergetics .docx -...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 4 pages.

Chapter 12: Metabolism The macromolecules in food are hydrolyzed (broken down by reactions with water) and the monomeric products are absorbed by the intestine Cells store glucose and amino acids in the form of polymers Metabolic fuels can be mobilized by breaking down glycogen, triaglycerols (lipids) and proteins (amino acids) Overview of Metabolism: Macromolecules------- Catabolism (breaking down molecules) -------produces: building blocks Building blocks-------- anabolism (building up molecules) ---------produces: macromolecules This process also produces a lot of free energy in the form of ATP Cells take up the products of digestion Human diet consists of four types of biomolecules (polymers) Proteins Nucleic Acids Polysaccharides Fats (Triacylglycerols) Digestion reduces biomolecules to monomers Amino Acids (from proteins) Nucleotides (from nucleic acids) Monosaccharides (from Polysaccharides) Fatty acids (from fats) Digestion takes place extracellularly in the mouth, stomach and small intestine Digestion is catalyzed by hydrolytic enzymes (catalyzes hydrolysis of a chemical bond) Starchy foods are hydrolyzed by amylases (found in the salivary glands ) Proteins are hydrolyzed by proteases (made in stomach and pancreas ) Fatty acids are hydrolyzed by lipases ( made in pancreas , secreted in the small intestine s ) The products of digestion are absorbed by cells lining the intestine Monosaccharides, amino acids, and di- and tri- peptides enter the cells via protein transporters Some highly hydrophobic lipids diffuse directly through the cell membrane BUT others require transporters Inside the cell, triacylglycerol (triglyceride made of glycerol and three fatty acids) digestion products reform triacylglycerols, some fatty acids are linked to cholesterol, and these are packaged together with specific proteins to form lipoproteins Lipoproteins= lipids+proteins (lipoproteins are amphiphilic, meaning part of it is water loving and the other part is water fearing) Water soluble substances, such as amino acids and monosaccharides, leave the intestinal cells and enter the
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 2
  • Spring '17

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask 0 bonus questions You can ask 0 questions (0 expire soon) You can ask 0 questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes