Sociology exam 1 study guide.docx - Chapter One Intro to...

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Chapter One Intro to Sociology Vocab Sociology - is the study of groups and group interactions, societies and social interactions, from small and personal groups to very large groups Society - a group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another and who share a common culture Micro-level - study small groups and individual interactions Macro-level - analysis look at trends among and between large groups and societies Culture - refers to the group’s shared practices, values and beliefs Sociological imagination - which pioneer sociologist C. Wright Mills described as an awareness of the relationship between a person’s behavior and experience and the wider culture that shaped the person’s choices and perceptions -it’s a way of seeing our own and other people’s behavior in relationship to history and social structure Social facts - the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals and all of the cultural rules that govern social life, that may contribute to these changes in the family. Figuration - the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the society that shapes the behavior Reification - an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real material existence Antipositivism- the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms and societal values Generalized others - the organized and generalized attitude of a social group Positivism- the scientific study of social patterns Qualitative sociology- in-depth interviews focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data Quantitative sociology- statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants Significant others- specific individuals that impact a person’s life Verstehen - a German word that means to understand in a deep way Conflict theory- a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources Constructivism - an extension of symbolic interaction theory, which proposes that reality, is what humans cognitively construct it to be Dramaturgical analysis -a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance Dynamic equilibrium - a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly Dysfunctions - social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society Function- the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity Functionalism - a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of an individual that make up that society
Grand theories - an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions which as why societies form and why they change Hypothesis - a testable proposition; a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables

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