Midterm Vocabulary Ch1 to 5.docx - Chapter 1 Vocabulary...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 7 pages.

Chapter 1 Vocabulary Anecdotal evidence An informal observation that has not been systematically tested. Testable Describes a hypothesis that can be supported or rejected by carefully designed experiments or observational studies. Peer Review A process in which independent scientific experts read scientific studies before they are published to ensure that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted the study. Falsifiable Describes a hypothesis that can be ruled out by data that show that the hypothesis does not explain the observation. Experiment A carefully designed test, the results of which will either support or rule out a hypothesis. Hypothesis A tentative explanation for a scientific observation or question. Experimental group The group in an experiment that experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation. Science The process of using observations and experiments to draw conclusions based on evidence. Sample size The number of experimental subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated. In human studies, sample size is the number of participants. Control group The group in an experiment that experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation. Scientific theory An explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence and has never been disproved. Placebo A fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of the experimental groups. Statistical significance A measure of confidence that the results obtained are "real" and not due to chance.
Placebo effect Randomized clinical trial A controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment (or a placebo). * Independent variable The variable, or factor, being deliberately changed in the experimental group. * Dependent variable The measured result of an experiment, analyzed in both the experimental and control groups. Epidemiology The study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors. Correlation A consistent relationship between two variables. Chapter 2 Vocabulary Homeostasis The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes. Element A chemically pure substance that cannot be chemically broken down; each element is made up of and defined by a single type of atom. Proton A positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom. Energy The ability to do work, including building complex molecules. Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass. Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle with negligible mass. Metabolism All the chemical reactions taking place in the cells of a living organism that allow it to obtain and use energy.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture