Handout: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model IntroductionI.Background and Development of the Theory:Nola Pender’s interest in nursing began at an early age, after observing the care of a family member during an illness. She believed that the goal of nursing is to help people take care of themselves and to achieve their optimal health (Sakraida, 2006). In 1975 she published “A Conceptual Model for Preventive Health Behavior” (Pender, 1975), which studied how people make decisions about their health. Her Health Promotion Model (HPM) was first published in 1982, and was revised several times. A six-year study funded by National Institute of Health tested and supported the validity of the HPM. From that study came an instrument called Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), which has been used as an operational definition for health promoting behaviors (Sakraida, 2006). Since then the model has been tested by numerous studies, as evidenced by the large volume of work that can be found citing the HPM. Central influences to the theory were Bandura’s Social Learning Theory and Rosenstock’s Health Belief Model. II.Why Advanced Nurses Need to Study the Theory:As early as 1975, Nola Pender recognized the increased emphasis that was being placed on illness prevention, and the role that the nurse had in promoting health maintenance (Pender, 1975). Pender defines health promotion as “activities directed toward developing resources of clients that maintain or enhance well-being and self-actualization” (Pender, 1984, p. 84). As advanced practice nurses are increasingly serving as primary care providers, and people are taking more actives role in their own health care, nurses have an important duty to their patients. More than ever, we have the ability to empower patients to care for themselves through education and personal development (McEwen, 2014). In the HPM, nurses are considered part of a patient’s interpersonal environment, due to the influence that they have throughout a patient’s lifespan (McEwen, 2014). Advanced practice nurses, in their roles as educators, administrators, practitioners, clinical nurse leaders, or clinical nurse specialists have the potential to significantly impact patient outcomes. In order to provide the best patient care possible, we must practice with the knowledge that “state of the art clinical practice includes health promotion education” (Sakraida, 2006, p.460). Pender’s HPM is relevant, applies during the full course of the life span, across cultures and throughout healthcare settings.