Health Promotion Model Handout.docx - Handout: Nola Penders...

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Handout: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion ModelIntroductionI.Background and Development of the Theory:Nola Pender’s interest in nursing began atan early age, after observing the care of a family member during an illness.She believedthat the goal of nursing is to help people take care of themselves and to achieve theiroptimal health (Sakraida, 2006).In 1975 she published “A Conceptual Model forPreventive Health Behavior” (Pender, 1975), which studied how people make decisionsabout their health.Her Health Promotion Model (HPM) was first published in 1982, andwas revised several times.A six-year study funded by National Institute of Health testedand supported the validity of the HPM.From that study came an instrument calledHealth Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), which has been used as an operationaldefinition for health promoting behaviors (Sakraida, 2006).Since then the model hasbeen tested by numerous studies, as evidenced by the large volume of work that can befound citing the HPM.Central influences to the theory were Bandura’s Social LearningTheory and Rosenstock’s Health Belief Model.II.Why Advanced Nurses Need to Study the Theory:As early as 1975, Nola Penderrecognized the increased emphasis that was being placed on illness prevention, and therole that the nurse had in promoting health maintenance (Pender, 1975).Pender defineshealth promotion as “activities directed toward developing resources of clients thatmaintain or enhance well-being and self-actualization” (Pender, 1984, p. 84).Asadvanced practice nurses are increasingly serving as primary care providers, and peopleare taking more actives role in their own health care, nurses have an important duty totheir patients.More than ever, we have the ability to empower patients to care forthemselves through education and personal development (McEwen, 2014).In the HPM,nurses are considered part of a patient’s interpersonal environment, due to the influencethat they have throughout a patient’s lifespan (McEwen, 2014).Advanced practicenurses, in their roles as educators, administrators, practitioners, clinical nurse leaders, orclinical nurse specialists have the potential to significantly impact patient outcomes.Inorder to provide the best patient care possible, we must practice with the knowledge that“state of the art clinical practice includes health promotion education” (Sakraida, 2006,p.460).Pender’s HPM is relevant, applies during the full course of the life span, acrosscultures and throughout healthcare settings.
Description and Analysis of the Theory and ComponentsI.Concepts of the Theory:Individual Characteristics and ExperiencesPrior related behavior:affects the decisions about how to care for selfPersonal factors: biological, psychological, sociocultural influences on behaviorBehavior-Specific Cognitions and Affect“These are a major motivational significance, and are modifiable through nursing actions”(Sakraida, 2006, p. 456).They are the determinants of health-promoting behavior, and form

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