Chapter 6 Notes AP World.docx - The First Globalization THe...

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The First Globalization: THe Rise and Spreadof IslamA.Before 7thcentury – contacts, but not total control ofancient world under one empire1.Arabia – nomadic land on periphery of major civilizations2.7th-17th century, islamic civilization provided key links and channels for exchange among what had been the main civilized centers of the classical era in theEastern Hemisphere.B.7thcentury – followers of Islam “submission” – Muslims – Allah – one God1. Began conquest and conversion2. Within decades, Muhammad had empire of Persia, Greece and EgyptC.Later empire spread1. Merchants, mystics, warriors 2. Empire expanded a. Africa, Asia, southern Europeb. Across steppes to central Asia, western China, south Asiac. Across ocean trade routes to southeast Asia and eastern Africad. Across overland trade routes, Sahara to western Africae. Across Asia Minor and into European heartland – rivals Christianity3. Muslim merchantsa. Worked with traders from other regionsb. Prime agents for transfer of food crops, technology, and ideasc. Muslim scholars studied, preserved and improved upon learning of Ancient Civs1. Eventually, Arabic – language of Qur’an would become international language of the educated4. Would define Middle East and N. Africa until todaySummaryTalks about the basis of Islam and how it spread.Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World1. Was unlikely birth of religion and had inhospitable desert2. Bedouin – nomadic culture dominant3. Camel nomads were dominant and organized in tribes and clans.A. Some towns – Mecca/Medina – merely extensions of Bedouin life1. Safety of trade routes determined success of cities2. People linked to kinship3. Culture were like those of the nomads:a. Focus on clan and family b. language and religion3. Some coastal trading townsB. Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance1. Organizationa. Bedouin herders lived in kin-related clans group with others to make tribes
1. Clans were only congregate for war, severe crisis2. Conditions force you to rely on clan – kicked out equals death3. Life regulated by councilsa. shaykhs – elder leaders of the tribe/clan1. almost always had large herds, several wives, many children/retainersb. Dictates of shaykhs enforced by warriorsb. Conflict over pastureland/watering holes between clan 1. Need to defend one’s honor2.If warriors from a clan found another warrior from another clan getting water from one of their wells, they would most likely kill them. 3. One man’s slight could lead to huge conflict followed by revenge4. Constant conflicts led to weakened empire – vulnerable to outsidersC. Towns and Long-Distance Trade1.Farmers and town dwellers carved out small communities in the western and southern peninsula in the classical era.

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