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Chapter 5 Notes - ISP 205 Chapter 5 Page 1 5.1 Basic...

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ISP 205 - Chapter 5 Page 1 5.1 Basic Properties of Light and Matter I. What is Light? A. Newton proved the colors passed through a prism were from light B. White light is a mix of all colors of the rainbow C. Visible Light – splits into a rainbow of color D. The electromagnetic spectrum shows different type of lights E. Light is also known as electromagnetic radiation F. Wave Properties of Light 1. Wave transmits energy without carrying material along with it 2. Wavelength – distance between adjacent peaks of a wave 3. Frequency – the number of times the wave moves up and down ( hertz ) 4. Light can affect both electrically charges particles and magnets: Electromagnetic wave 5. All light travels through empty space at the same speed 6. Speed of Light = 300,000 km/sec a. wavelength x frequency b. Longer wavelength = lower frequency (and vice versa) G. Particle Properties of Light 1. Light can behave as both waves and particles 2. Light comes in “pieces” called photons , each with a precise wavelength, frequency, and energy a. Photons carry a particular amount of energy depending on frequency b. Higher the energy the higher the frequency c. Thus energy increases in the same direction as frequency H. The Many Forms of Light 1. Visible light wavelengths range from 400nm at the blue/violet end to 700nm (red) a. nanometer = nm b. nm = one billionth of a meter 2. Wavelength longer than red = infrared 3. Radio waves are the longest-wavelength light (not sound) 4. Microwaves – region near the border between infrared and radio waves, where wavelengths range from micrometers to millimeters 5. Ultraviolet – shorter than blue 6. X rays – shorter than blue 7. Gamma Rays – shortest II. What is matter? A. Must understand the nature of matter in order to decode the messages received in light B. Atomic Structure 1. Each chemical element represents a different type of atom 2. Atoms are made of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons found in the nucleus at the center of an atom a. nucleus hold most of the mass of the atom b. protons and neutrons are each about 2,000 x as massive as an electron 3. Properties of an atom depend on the electrical charge of the nucleus a. Electrical Charge – physical property that is always conserved b. Charge of a proton is a positive unit (+ 1) c. Neutrons have no charge 4. Atom held together by positively charged protons and negatively charges electrons
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ISP 205 - Chapter 5 Page 2 5. Strong force overcomes electrical repulsion and holds the nucleus together 6. Electrons give the atom a size C. Atomic Terminology 1. Atoms of different chemical elements have different numbers of protons = atomic # 2. # of Protons + # of Neutrons = Atomic Mass 3. Isotopes of a particular chemic element all have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons 4. The number of different material substances is far greater than the number of chemical
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