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Chapter 6 Notes - ISP 205 Chapter 6 Page 1 6.1 A Brief Tour...

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ISP 205 - Chapter 6 Page 1 6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System I. What Does the Solar System Look Like? A. Planets Fall into 2 major categories 1. Terrestrial a. small in mass and size b. close to the sun c. made of metal and rock d. few moons and no rings 2. Jovian a. large in mass and size b. far from Sun c. made of H, He, and hydrogen compounds d. rings and many moons B. Asteroid and Comet Regions 1. Asteroid Belt a. between Mars and Jupiter b. made of metal and rock 2. Kuiper Belt a. beyond Neptune’s orbit b. ice-rich 3. Oort Cloud a. Even more comets orbit the Sun in the distant, spherical region b. Only a rare few ever plunge into the inner solar system 4. Exception a. Earth’s relatively large moon b. Uranus’ odd tilt C. The Sun 1. Key Facts 2. Brightest & largest object in solar system 3. Contains more than 99.9% of the solar system’s total mass 4. Not solid, “rolling sea” of extremely hot hydrogen 5. Source of sun’s energy lies deep in its core, temperatures and pressures very high 6. Loses 4 million tons of mass each second 7. So much Hydrogen it has shone for 5 billion years and will continue for another 5 billion 8. Solar wind (charged particles flowing outward from the Sun) shape planetary magnetic fields and influence atmospheres D. Mercury 1. Key Facts a. Distance from Sun = .39 AU b. Radius = 2440 km / Mass = .055M earth / Density = 5.43 g/cm3 c. Composition = metal and rocks, mostly iron d. Surface Temp = 700 K (day) e. No moons
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ISP 205 - Chapter 6 Page 2 2. Smallest planet 3. No active volcanoes, no wind, no rain, and no life 4. Would see stars in the daytime because there is no air to scatter the sunlight 5. Hot and Cold extremes 6. Tidal forces from the Sun force Mercury into unusual rotation patterns a. 58.6 day rotation period b. Rotates 3 times for every 2 of its 87.9 day orbits of the Sun 7. Days and Nights last about 3 Earth months a. Day temp = 425 C b. Night/ Shadow temp = 150 C 8. Hard to observe; visited only by one spacecraft Mariner 10 E. Venus 1. Key Facts a. Distance from Sun = .72 AU b. Radius = 6051 km / Mass = .82 M earth / Density = 5.24 g/cm3 c. Composition: Rocks, Metals d. Surface Temp = 740 K e. No Moons 2. Close to Earth in Size 3. Rotates slowly in the opposite direction of Earth a. days and nights are very long b. sun rises in the west and sets in the East 4. Surface is hidden from view by dense clouds 5. Once thought as Earth’s “sister planet” 6. No oxygen and No liquid water 7. Temperature a. Greenhouse Effect bakes surface to 470 C b. Traps heat, no relief at night time 8. Thick atmosphere bears down on the surface with a pressure of a km below ocean surface on Earth
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