Untitled document.pdf - 1 Jamestown(Virginia a diseases be malaria from swamps and ponds b more men than women c agricultural work so John Smith said if

Untitled document.pdf - 1 Jamestown(Virginia a diseases be...

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Unformatted text preview: 1. Jamestown​ ​(Virginia) a. diseases​ ​be​ ​malaria​ ​from​ ​swamps​ ​and​ ​ponds b. more​ ​men​ ​than​ ​women c. agricultural​ ​work​ ​so​ ​John​ ​Smith​ ​said​ ​if​ ​you​ ​don't​ ​work​ ​you​ ​don't​ ​eat d. military​ ​held​ ​town​ ​together e. no​ ​stable​ ​gov f. low​ ​supply​ ​from​ ​England g. Purpose​ ​for​ ​Founding→​ ​looking​ ​for​ ​gold​ ​and​ ​profit 2. Headright​ ​System​-​ ​(1618)​ ​people​ ​who​ ​could​ ​afford​ ​a​ ​ticket​ ​also​ ​got​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​land​ ​(50 acres​ ​for​ ​every​ ​ticket​ ​purchased) 3. Indentured​ ​Servants​-work​ ​for​ ​a​ ​set​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​years​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​off​ ​their​ ​debts​ ​(7​ ​years​ ​of​ ​free​ ​labor) -Like​ ​slaves,​ ​servants​ ​could​ ​be​ ​bought​ ​and​ ​sold,​ ​could​ ​not​ ​marry​ ​without​ ​the​ ​permission​ ​of​ ​their owner,​ ​were​ ​subject​ ​to​ ​physical​ ​punishment,​ ​and​ ​saw​ ​their​ ​obligation​ ​to​ ​labor​ ​enforced​ ​by​ ​the courts.​ ​To​ ​ensure​ ​uninterrupted​ ​work​ ​by​ ​female​ ​servants,​ ​the​ ​law​ ​lengthened​ ​the​ ​term​ ​of​ ​their indenture​ ​if​ ​they​ ​became​ ​pregnant.​ ​“Many​ ​Negroes​ ​are​ ​better​ ​used,”​ ​complained​ ​Elizabeth​ ​Sprigs, an​ ​indentured​ ​servant​ ​in​ ​Maryland​ ​who​ ​described​ ​being​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​work​ ​“day​ ​and​ ​night​ ​.​ ​.​ ​.​ ​then tied​ ​up​ ​and​ ​whipped.”​ ​But,​ ​unlike​ ​slaves,​ ​servants​ ​could​ ​look​ ​forward​ ​to​ ​a​ ​release​ ​from​ ​bondage. Assuming​ ​they​ ​survived​ ​their​ ​period​ ​of​ ​labor,​ ​servants​ ​would​ ​receive​ ​a​ ​payment​ ​known​ ​as “freedom​ ​dues”​ ​and​ ​become​ ​free​ ​members​ ​of​ ​society. Wealthy​ ​landowners​ ​sponsored​ ​people’s​ ​voyages​ ​in​ ​turn​ ​for​ ​labor​ ​service​ ​for​ ​5-10​ ​years.​ ​After their​ ​time​ ​finished​ ​they​ ​were​ ​promised​ ​land,​ ​however​ ​servants​ ​were​ ​given​ ​the​ ​“bad​ ​land”​ ​that didn't​ ​receive​ ​protection​ ​against​ ​natives/wasn't​ ​as​ ​fertile​ ​as​ ​the​ ​tidewater​ ​region. 4. Tidewater​ ​Gentry-​ ​Virginian​​ ​aristocrats,​ ​they​ ​lived​ ​near​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​and​ ​had​ ​direct​ ​access​ ​with trade​ ​with​ ​England,​ ​they​ ​had​ ​less​ ​contact​ ​with​ ​Indians 5. Bacon’s​ ​Rebellion​Causes​:​ ​governor​ ​Berkeley​ ​reserved​ ​land​ ​for​ ​Natives,​ ​wealth​ ​was​ ​mostly​ ​concentrated​ ​within​ ​the inner​ ​circle,​ ​Bacon​ ​(who​ ​was​ ​wealthy)​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​be​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​inner​ ​circle​ ​in​ ​Jamestown - Bacon​ ​demanded​ ​for​ ​the​ ​removal​ ​of​ ​Indians​ ​and​ ​more​ ​land​ ​for​ ​whites,​ ​he​ ​gained​ ​support​ ​from small​ ​farmers,​ ​landless​ ​men,​ ​indentured​ ​servants,​ ​and​ ​Africans Impact​:​ ​Bacon​ ​destroyed​ ​Jamestown​ ​and​ ​became​ ​governor​ ​after​ ​Berkeley​ ​fled,​ ​English​ ​ships​ ​restored order.​ ​Voting​ ​rights​ ​were​ ​restored,​ ​taxes​ ​were​ ​reduced,​ ​strict​ ​Indian​ ​policy,​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​tobacco​ ​price,​ ​end​ ​of headright​ ​system​ ​and​ ​shift​ ​to​ ​slaves 6. Virginia​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Burgesses​-​ ​first​ ​elected​ ​assembly​ ​in​ ​colonial​ ​America​ ​in​ ​1619;​ ​hardly​ ​a​ ​model of​ ​for​ ​democracy​ ​because​ ​only​ ​landowners​ ​could​ ​vote;​ ​governor​ ​had​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​nullify​ ​any proposals​ ​from​ ​the​ ​body;​ ​enacted​ ​new​ ​slave​ ​codes​ ​in​ ​1705​ ​which​ ​embedded​ ​white​ ​supremacy 7. Massachusetts​ ​Founding​-​ ​Pilgrims​ ​emigrated​ ​because​ ​they​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​they​ ​were​ ​surrounded by​ ​a​ ​corrupt​ ​English​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​separate​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Anglican​ ​Church;​ ​they​ ​signed​ ​the Mayflower​ ​compact​ ​for​ ​just​ ​and​ ​equal​ ​laws;​ ​they​ ​settled​ ​in​ ​Plymouth​ ​(MA);​ ​they​ ​settled​ ​on​ ​land that​ ​was​ ​abandoned​ ​by​ ​Indians​ ​who​ ​died​ ​of​ ​smallpox;​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​Pilgrims​ ​died​ ​because​ ​of​ ​disease, weather,​ ​and​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​food​ ​but​ ​they​ ​were​ ​guided​ ​by​ ​Indians​ ​(Squanto);​ ​had​ ​alliances​ ​with Massasoit,​ ​they​ ​had​ ​loose​ ​restrictions​ ​on​ ​voting​ ​rights -pilgrims​ ​were​ ​separatists.​ ​They​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​separate​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Church​ ​of​ ​England 8. Puritan​ ​Beliefs-​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​God​ ​had​ ​formed​ ​a​ ​unique​ ​covenant,​ ​or​ ​agreement,​ ​with​ ​them.​ ​They believed​ ​that​ ​God​ ​expected​ ​them​ ​to​ ​live​ ​according​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Scriptures,​ ​to​ ​reform​ ​the​ ​Anglican Church,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​set​ ​a​ ​good​ ​example​ ​that​ ​would​ ​cause​ ​those​ ​who​ ​had​ ​remained​ ​in​ ​England​ ​to change​ ​their​ ​sinful​ ​ways.​ ​Believed​ ​that​ ​fate​ ​was​ ​predetermined​ ​***THE​ ​ELECT(it​ ​was​ ​known​ ​by god​ ​if​ ​you​ ​would​ ​go​ ​to​ ​heaven​ ​or​ ​hell​ ​before​ ​you​ ​were​ ​born);​ ​they​ ​believed​ ​in​ ​self​ ​teaching​ ​and listening​ ​to​ ​sermons.​ ​UNITY/COMMUNITY​ ​was​ ​very​ ​important​ ​to​ ​them.​ ​Wanted​ ​to​ ​be​ ​the model​ ​society,​ ​“City​ ​upon​ ​the​ ​hill” 9. Mayflower​ ​Compact-​ ​ ​(​pilgrims​)​ a​ dult​ ​men​ ​agreed​ ​to​ ​obey​ ​“just​ ​and​ ​equal​ ​laws”​ ​enacted​ ​by representatives​ ​of​ ​their​ ​own​ ​choosing.​ ​This​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​written​ ​frame​ ​of​ ​government​ ​in​ ​what​ ​is now​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States. 10. 11. Pequot​ ​War​-​ ​as​ ​the​ ​white​ ​population​ ​expanded,​ ​contact​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Indians​ ​was​ ​inevitable.​ ​In​ ​1637, fur​ ​trader​ ​was​ ​killed​ ​by​ ​a​ ​powerful​ ​Pequot​ ​tribe,​ ​so​ ​a​ ​force​ ​of​ ​CT​ ​and​ ​MA​ ​soldiers​ ​surrounded and​ ​destroyed​ ​Pequot​ ​village.​ ​Most​ ​Pequot​ ​were​ ​exterminated​ ​or​ ​sent​ ​into​ ​slavery. Effect:​ ​Connecticut​ ​river​ ​valley​ ​was​ ​open​ ​to​ ​white​ ​settlement,​ ​showed​ ​Indians​ ​that​ ​whites​ ​had​ ​a​ ​power that ​did​ ​not​ ​match​ ​the​ ​indians’,​ ​proof​ ​that​ ​white​ ​settlers​ ​were​ ​on​ ​a​ ​mission​ ​for​ ​God;​ ​a​ ​really​ ​powerful​ ​tribe was​ ​eliminated 12. King​ ​Philip's​ ​War(impact​ ​and​ ​effects​ ​on​ ​both​ ​side) ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Englishmen​ ​King​ ​Philip’s​ ​War​ ​produced​ ​a​ ​broadening​ ​of​ ​freedom​ ​for​ ​white​ ​New​ ​Englanders​ ​by expanding​ ​their​ ​access​ ​to​ ​land.​ ​But​ ​this​ ​freedom​ ​rested​ ​on​ ​the​ ​final​ ​dispossession​ ​of​ ​the​ ​region’s​ ​Indians. Indian​ ​villages​ ​were​ ​destroyed,​ ​and​ ​captives,​ ​including​ ​men,​ ​women,​ ​and​ ​children,​ ​were​ ​killed​ ​or sold​ ​into​ ​slavery​ ​in​ ​the​ ​West​ ​Indies.​ ​Most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​survivors​ ​fled​ ​to​ ​Canada​ ​or​ ​New​ ​York.​ ​Even​ ​the “praying​ ​Indians”—about​ ​2,000​ ​Indians​ ​who​ ​had​ ​converted​ ​to​ ​Christianity​ ​and​ ​lived​ ​in autonomous​ ​communities​ ​under​ ​Puritan​ ​supervision—suffered.​ ​Removed​ ​from​ ​their​ ​towns​ ​to Deer​ ​Island​ ​in​ ​Boston​ ​Harbor,​ ​supposedly​ ​for​ ​their​ ​own​ ​protection,​ ​many​ ​perished​ ​from​ ​disease and​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​food. the​ ​image​ ​of​ ​Indians​ ​as​ ​bloodthirsty​ ​savages​ ​became​ ​firmly​ ​entrenched​ ​in​ ​the​ ​New​ ​England mind. 13. Joint​ ​Stock​ ​Company​ ​vs.​ ​Proprietary​ ​Colony Joint​ ​stock​ ​companies​ ​were​ ​trading​ ​companies​ ​that​ ​were​ ​backed​ ​by​ ​investors​ ​for​ ​profit.​ ​Each​ ​investor​ ​gets an​ ​equal​ ​share​ ​of​ ​the​ ​company,​ ​which​ ​means​ ​that​ ​the​ ​loss​ ​is​ ​also​ ​equally​ ​shared.​ ​A​ ​proprietary​ ​colony​ ​is​ ​a colony​ ​that​ ​was​ ​under​ ​one​ ​ruler,​ ​like​ ​a​ ​king,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​was​ ​under​ ​his​ ​jurisdiction​ ​on​ ​how​ ​to​ ​divide​ ​the​ ​land. 14. Pennsylvania​ ​and​ ​Quaker​ ​beliefs-​ ​equality​ ​of​ ​all​ ​persons​ ​before​ ​god​ ​and​ ​the​ ​primacy​ ​of​ ​the individual​ ​conscience a. Established​ ​appointed​ ​council b. Everyone​ ​entitled​ ​to​ ​liberty​ ​including​ ​women,​ ​Indians​ ​and​ ​Black​ ​people c. William​ ​Penn-​ ​owned​ ​all​ ​land​ ​and​ ​distributed​ ​it,​ ​a​ ​proprietary​ ​colony. d. Against​ ​slavery,​ ​had​ ​good​ ​relations​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Natives e. Increased​ ​land​ ​ownership​ ​=​ ​increased​ ​voting 15. Rhode​ ​Island Established​ ​by​ ​Roger​ ​WIlliams​ ​after​ ​he​ ​was​ ​expelled​ ​from​ ​MA,​ ​founded​ ​on​ ​ideals​ ​of​ ​religious​ ​freedom, attracted​ ​dissenters​ ​(Protestants​ ​who​ ​were​ ​not​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Catholic​ ​church)​ ​and​ ​Jews.​ ​elected​ ​assembly​ ​2​ ​times a​ ​year,​ ​governor​ ​annually Roger​ ​Williams​-​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​individuals​ ​should​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​follow​ ​whatever​ ​religion​ ​they​ ​insisted; church​ ​and​ ​state​ ​should​ ​be​ ​separated;​ ​religious​ ​freedom,​ ​and​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​the​ ​Indians​ ​for​ ​the​ ​land​ ​they took;​ ​he​ was​ ​banished​ ​from​ ​MA​ ​in​ ​1636​ ​and​ ​moved​ ​to​ ​Rhode​ ​Island,​ ​where​ ​he​ ​received​ ​a​ ​charter​ ​from London 16. Anne​ ​Hutchinson-​​ ​she​ ​held​ ​meetings;​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​people​ ​were​ ​saved​ ​based​ ​on​ ​inner​ ​grace,​ ​not behavior​ ​or​ ​church​ ​attendance.​ ​She​ ​went​ ​to​ ​Rhode​ ​Island,​ ​where​ ​she​ ​died;​ ​it​ ​shows​ ​how​ ​different Puritan​ ​beliefs​ ​led​ ​to​ ​criticism 17. Connecticut-​ ​founded​ ​by​ ​Thomas​ ​Hooker​ ​because​ ​of​ ​religious​ ​disagreement​ ​in​ ​Massachusetts. Hartford​ ​and​ ​New​ ​haven(emigrants​ ​wanting​ ​closer​ ​connection​ ​with​ ​church​ ​and​ ​state)​ ​connected through​ ​a​ ​royal​ ​charter​ ​into​ ​Connecticut.​ ​Didn't​ ​have​ ​to​ ​be​ ​church​ ​member​ ​to​ ​vote 18. Salem​ ​Witch​ ​Trials-​ ​causes​ ​&​ ​significance​-​ ​people​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​witches​ ​had​ ​a​ ​pact​ ​with​ ​the devil​ ​to​ ​interfere​ ​with​ ​natural​ ​processes;​ ​girls​ ​began​ ​to​ ​suffer​ ​fits;​ ​victims​ ​had​ ​to​ ​confess​ ​the names​ ​of​ ​others​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​be​ ​saved,​ ​which​ ​allowed​ ​people​ ​to​ ​get​ ​revenge​ ​on​ ​others;​ ​it​ ​was​ ​a​ ​way of​ ​displaying​ ​power.​ ​The​ ​witch​ ​trials​ ​showed​ ​that​ ​there​ ​was​ ​something​ ​wrong​ ​with​ ​the Massachusetts​ ​justice​ ​system.​ ​In​ ​1692,​ ​MA​ ​declared​ ​to​ ​release​ ​the​ ​remaining​ ​prisoners​ ​and​ ​don’t take​ ​witch​ ​testimonies​ ​seriously. 19. New​ ​York​ ​-​ ​Middle​ ​colony​ ​which​ ​was​ ​originally​ ​a​ ​Dutch​ ​colony​ ​called​ ​New​ ​Amsterdam.​ ​It​ ​was surrendered​ ​to​ ​the​ ​English​ ​and​ ​renamed​ ​to​ ​New​ ​York​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Duke​ ​of​ ​York.​ ​Some​ ​natural resources​ ​include​ ​agricultural​ ​land,​ ​coal,​ ​furs,​ ​timber,​ ​and​ ​iron​ ​ore. 20. New​ ​Jersey-​​ ​the​ ​Duke​ ​of​ ​York​ ​gave​ ​a​ ​grant​ ​to​ ​Governor​ ​Berkeley​ ​and​ ​Sir​ ​George​ ​Carteret; known​ ​for​ ​its​ ​port​ ​cities​ ​and​ ​wheat,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​a​ ​major​ ​marketing​ ​place​ ​for​ ​the​ ​British​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​their goods,​ ​had​ ​a​ ​large​ ​artisan​ ​population 21. Maryland​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​Toleration​​ ​-​ ​A​ ​law​ ​mandating​ ​religious​ ​tolerance​ ​for​ ​Trinitarian​ ​Christians passed​ ​by​ ​Maryland.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​the​ ​second​ ​law​ ​requiring​ ​religious​ ​tolerance​ ​in​ ​the​ ​British​ ​North America​ ​colonies​ ​and​ ​created​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pioneer​ ​statues​ ​by​ ​the​ ​legislative​ ​body​ ​of​ ​an​ ​organized colonial​ ​government​ ​to​ ​guarantee​ ​any​ ​degree​ ​of​ ​religious​ ​liberty. 22. New​ ​England​ ​vs​ ​Chesapeake New​ ​England Family​ ​units,​ ​founded​ ​on​ ​religious​ ​freedom diverse​ ​economy​ ​with​ ​more​ ​job​ ​specialization;​ ​forest​ ​products,​ ​especially​ ​timber​ ​and​ ​fishing tight​ ​community;​ ​close​ ​relationships​ ​in​ ​which​ ​everyone​ ​knew​ ​each​ ​other;​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​education​ ​(school​ ​& religion) Families,​ ​Puritans​ ​and​ ​separatists Infertile​ ​&​ ​rocky​ ​land Not​ ​a​ ​great​ ​economic​ ​gap New​ ​England​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​trading,​ ​ship​ ​building,​ ​and​ ​rum​ ​exports​ ​while​ ​Chesapeake​ ​focused​ ​on farming​ ​and​ ​tobacco​ ​trading.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​more​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Chesapeake​ ​than​ ​the​ ​New​ ​England colonies.​ ​New​ ​England​ ​colonies​ ​were​ ​more​ ​family​ ​based​ ​since​ ​it​ ​established​ ​for​ ​religious​ ​beliefs​ ​while Virginia​ ​(Chesapeake)​ ​established​ ​for​ ​economic​ ​purposes 23. Slavery​ ​and​ ​how​ ​it​ ​developed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies-​​ ​They​ ​identified​ ​as​ ​African​ ​Americans​ ​in​ ​the​ ​19th century. North→​ ​slavery​ ​was​ ​less​ ​central​ ​to​ ​the​ ​economy,​ ​most​ ​people​ ​worked​ ​as​ ​farm​ ​hands,​ ​artisan​ ​shops,​ ​etc. They​ ​could​ ​marry​ ​and​ ​testify​ ​in​ ​court​ ​and​ ​sometimes​ ​own​ ​land.​ ​Employers​ ​mostly​ ​relied​ ​on​ ​wage​ ​laborers in​ ​northern​ ​colonies.​ ​They​ ​were​ ​exposed​ ​to​ ​mainstream​ ​culture,​ ​could​ ​practice​ ​their​ ​own​ ​religion Chesapeake→​ ​as​ ​tobacco​ ​demand​ ​increased,​ ​the​ ​slave​ ​demand​ ​increased​ ​as​ ​well. RSouth→​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​South​ ​Carolina​ ​and​ ​Georgia​ ​worked​ ​on​ ​rice​ ​plantations,​ ​slavery​ ​was​ ​more​ ​brutal,​ ​they were​ ​exposed​ ​to​ ​white​ ​culture​ ​but​ ​kept​ ​their​ ​African​ ​identity,​ ​slaves​ ​had​ ​family 24. What​ ​crops​ ​are​ ​grown​ ​where In​ ​VA​ ​sugar​ ​and​ ​tobacco​ ​were​ ​grown​ ​and​ ​harvested. Carolinas​ ​+​ ​Georgia→​ ​rice,​ ​sugar​,​ ​indigo 25. General​ ​Court​ ​and​ ​town​ ​hall​ ​meetings General​ ​Court-​ ​group​ ​of​ ​deputies​ ​elected​ ​by​ ​freeman​ ​(landowning​ ​church​ ​members)​ ​to​ ​form​ ​a single​ ​body 26. Fundamental​ ​Orders​ ​of​ ​Connecticut​ ​-​ ​The​ ​fundamental​ ​orders​ ​describe​ ​the​ ​government​ ​set​ ​up by​ ​the​ ​Connecticut​ ​River​ ​towns,​ ​setting​ ​its​ ​structure​ ​and​ ​powers.​ ​They​ ​wanted​ ​the​ ​government​ ​to have​ ​access​ ​to​ ​open​ ​ocean​ ​for​ ​trading.​ ​The​ ​Orders​ ​have​ ​the​ ​features​ ​of​ ​a​ ​written​ ​constitution​ ​and are​ ​considered​ ​by​ ​some​ ​as​ ​the​ ​first​ ​written​ ​Constitution​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Western​ ​tradition.​ ​It​ ​gave​ ​men more​ ​voting​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​made​ ​more​ ​men​ ​eligible​ ​to​ ​run​ ​for​ ​elected​ ​positions. 27. Other​ ​democratic​ ​institutions-​ ​salutary​ ​neglect:​ ​British​ ​let​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​govern​ ​themselves 17th​ ​century-​ ​governor​ ​was​ ​focal​ ​pomint​ ​of​ ​the​ ​government 18th​ ​century-​ ​assemblies​ ​became​ ​more​ ​assertive 28. How​ ​colonial​ ​governments​ ​are​ ​organized(King,​ ​appointed​ ​governor,​ ​council​ ​an​ ​elected assemblies)-​ ​English​ ​crown​ ​appointed​ ​governor​ ​for​ ​each​ ​state.​ ​The​ ​governor​ ​oversaw​ ​trade, ​had final​ ​approval​ ​on​ ​laws,​ ​dismiss​ ​colonial​ ​assembly;​ ​Council​ ​was​ ​chosen​ ​by​ ​the​ ​governor​ ​for​ ​each state.​ ​It​ ​acted​ ​as​ ​the​ ​highest​ ​court​ ​in​ ​each​ ​colony;​ ​Colonial​ ​assembly​ ​was​ ​elected​ ​by​ ​the landowners/​ ​freemen​ ​colonists.​ ​The​ ​assembly​ ​made​ ​laws​ ​and​ ​taxes,​ ​paid​ ​the​ ​governor’s​ ​salary 29. What​ ​characteristics​ ​for​ ​all​ ​colonies​ ​have​ ​in​ ​common?-​all​ ​largely​ ​farming​ ​and​ ​fishing communities,​ ​all​ ​had​ ​slaves,​ ​did​ ​not​ ​produce​ ​any​ ​manufactured​ ​wgoods,​ ​mercantilism 30. Glorious​ ​revolution-​ ​James​ ​II​ ​removed​ ​from​ ​the​ ​throne​ ​in​ ​England,​ ​Charles​ ​II​ ​ascends. Established​ ​parliamentary​ ​supremacy​ ​ ​and​ ​Protestant​ ​succession​ ​to​ ​the​ ​throne.​ ​James​ ​II​ ​overthrow exemplifies​ ​that​ ​liberty​ ​is​ ​a​ ​birthright​ ​and​ ​that​ ​the​ ​king​ ​is​ ​subject​ ​to​ ​law 31. Anglicization?Examples​ ​-​ ​The​ ​wealthy​ ​families​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​began​ ​to​ ​adapt​ ​the​ ​behavior​ ​of the​ ​English.​ ​They​ ​began​ ​to​ ​import​ ​foreign​ ​goods​ ​that​ ​were​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​luxuries​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​sending their​ ​children​ ​back​ ​to​ ​England​ ​for​ ​an​ ​education. 32. Navigation​ ​acts-the​ ​riles​ ​of​ ​them,​ ​impact​ ​both​ ​short​ ​and​ ​long Intended​ ​to​ ​wrest​ ​control​ ​of​ ​world​ ​trade​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Dutch,​ ​whose​ ​merchants​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​free​ ​trade.​ ​Certain goods​ ​such​ ​as​ ​sugar​ ​and​ ​tobacco​ ​had​ ​to​ ​be​ ​shipped​ ​on​ ​English​ ​ships​ ​to​ ​english​ ​ports​ ​which​ ​were​ ​then​ ​re exported​ ​out​ ​(tax​ ​profit) Short:​ ​colonial​ ​gain,​ ​mother​ ​country​ ​gain,​ ​smuggling Long​ ​term:​ ​england​ ​shipbuilding​ ​industry​ ​boom,​ ​funded​ ​the​ ​industrial​ ​revolution 33. Education​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies:​ ​characteristics,​ ​who​ ​was​ ​educated​ ​and​ ​in​ ​what?​ ​Differences across​ ​regions,​ ​the​ ​colleges Higher​ ​class​ ​educated Massachusetts:​ ​every​ ​town​ ​needed​ ​a​ ​school​ ​b/c​ ​they​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​read​ ​the​ ​bible 34. Peter​ ​Zenger​ ​Trials-​​ ​famous​ ​colonial​ ​court​ ​case​ ​involving​ ​freedom​ ​of​ ​the​ ​press.​ ​Weekly​ ​Journal lambasted​ ​NY​ ​governor​ ​for​ ​tyranny,​ ​which​ ​led​ ​to​ ​the​ ​trial​ ​of​ ​Peter​ ​Zenger.​ ​His​ ​lawyer,​ ​Alexander Hamilton,​ ​urged​ ​to​ ​judge​ ​the​ ​governor,​ ​not​ ​the​ ​publisher.​ ​If​ ​they​ ​found​ ​Zenger’s​ ​words​ ​to​ ​be​ ​true, he​ ​would​ ​be​ ​innocent.​ ​Zenger​ ​was​ ​not​ ​guilty​ ​and​ ​it​ ​promoted​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​that​ ​the​ ​publication​ ​of​ ​truth should​ ​always​ ​be​ ​permitted 35. The​ ​First​ ​Great​ ​Awakening-​ ​all​ ​about,​ ​especially​ ​impacts​ ​and​ ​effects​ ​on​ ​the​ ​colonies​​ ​Minister​ ​George​ ​Whitefield​ ​sparked​ ​the​ ​Great​ ​Awakening,​ ​stating​ ​that ​people​ ​could​ ​repent​ ​for their​ ​sins.​ ​Many​ ​people​ ​followed​ ​him​ ​and​ ​many​ ​created​ ​churches​ ​going​ ​against​ ​his​ ​ideas.​ ​Fears​ ​of a​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​religious​ ​devotion​ ​inspired​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​local​ ​revivals​ ​that​ ​were​ ​based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​more “emotional​ ​and​ ​personal”​ ​Christianity​ ​—​ ​Results​:​ ​social​ ​tensions;​ ​revivalists​ ​popularized​ ​the​ ​idea of​ ​salvation>profit;​ ​condemned​ ​slavery;​ ​criticized​ ​the​ ​wealthy;​ ​promoted​ ​ideas​ ​of​ ​trusting​ ​one’s own​ ​opinion​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​elites’​ ​opinions ...
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