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Chapter 8 Gases Guided Notes with Study Checks.docx

Chapter 8 Gases Guided Notes with Study Checks.docx - CHEM...

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CHEM 1151 Guided Notes Chapter 8 Gases 8.1 Properties of Gases Learning Goal Describe the kinetic molecular theory of gases and the units of measurement used for gases . Generally, molecules with fewer than ___________ atoms from the first two periods in the periodic table are gases at room temperature. In addition, the following are also gases: H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , and Cl 2 oxides of the nonmetals on the upper right corner of the periodic table: __________________________ _____________________________________ noble gases Kinetic Molecular Theory A gas consists of small particles that o move rapidly in _____________________ lines o have essentially ______ attractive (or repulsive) forces o are very far apart o have very small volumes compared to the volume of the container they occupy o have kinetic energies that increase with an ______________ in temperature Properties That Describe a Gas Gases are described in terms of four properties: _____________________________________________ ________________________ Volume o The volume of a gas is the same as the volume of the _______________ it occupies is usually measured in __________________________ increases with an increase in __________________ at a constant pressure Vocab to Know! atmosphere (atm) atmospheric pressure Avogadro’s law Boyle’s law Charles’s law combined gas law Dalton’s law Chapter 8 Preview 8.1 Properties of Gases 8.2 Pressure and Volume (Boyle’s Law) 8.3 Temperature and Volume (Charles’s Law) 8.4 Temperature and Pressure (Gay-Lussac’s Law) 8.5 The Combined Gas Law 8.6 Volume and Moles (Avogadro’s Law) 8.7 Partial Pressures (Dalton’s Law) Gay-Lussac’s law kinetic molecular theory of gases molar volume partial pressure pressure STP
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Temperature o The temperature of a gas relates to the ____________ ____________ ___________ of the molecules and is measured in the Kelvin (K) temperature scale. o When the temperature of a gas is decreased, the molecules have ____________ collisions increased, the molecules have ____________ collisions Pressure o Pressure is a measure of the gas particle ___________ with sides of a container and is measured in units of millimeters of mercury (____________) or torr atmospheres (atm) pascals (Pa) or ___________________________ (kPa) pounds per square inch (psi) o A barometer measures the pressure exerted by the gases in the _________________ indicates atmospheric pressure as the height in millimeters of the mercury column 760 mmHg = ________________ = _____________________ o Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of air from the ________________ _____________________________________________________ decreases as altitude increases is 1 atm at ___________________________________ o Altitude and Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure changes with variations in ________________ and __________________. On a hot, sunny day, the mercury column _______, indicating a ____________atmospheric pressure. On a rainy day, the atmosphere exerts _________ pressure, which causes the mercury column to fall. Study Check 1. What is 475 mmHg expressed in atmospheres? A. 475 atm B. 0.625 atm C. 3.61 × 10 5 atm 2. The pressure in a tire is 2.00 atm. What is this pressure in millimeters of mercury?
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