Criminal Justice Chapter 3 Slides

Criminal Justice Chapter 3 Slides - Chapter 3 Understanding...

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1 Chapter 3 Understanding Crime and Victimization Using Theory
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2 Criminology Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. Its intent is to develop an understanding of the cause of crime and victimization in society. There are many criminological theories designed to examine crime from many perspectives.
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3 Choice Theory Quite simply, crime is the product of a rational choice made by the actor after weighing the costs and benefits of the criminal action. The assumption is that crime can be prevented if we make the punishments severe enough. Research has failed to yield convincing evidence that criminals are indeed deterred by the threat of punishment. This is a more politically conservative perspective that believes crime is the product of one’s decisions as opposed to some societal deficiency. Are all crimes the result of rational choices? How does this effect the concept of rehabilitation?
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4 General vs. Specific Deterrence Deterrence A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties It assumes criminals are rational Punishment severe enough to convince offenders never to repeat their criminal activity
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5 Situational Crime Prevention Situational crime prevention involves developing  tactics to reduce or eliminate a specific crime  problem. Instead of attempting to deal with the individual criminal, these strategies simply try to make crime less tempting. Clarke’s types of crime prevention (p. 94 – 95): Increasing the effort needed Increased the risks Reduce the rewards Induce shame or guilt Reduce Provocation Remove excuses
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6
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7 Incapacitation There is little evidence that, short of death or life  without parole,  incapacitating criminals deters  them from future criminality. The idea is to hold on to offenders until they are  simply too old to commit crimes.  Can Incapacitation Reduce Crime?  Most studies have not supported that strict  incarceration will reduce crime. Further the social benefits of incarceration can  outweigh the costs of being locked up.  
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8 Evaluating Deterrence Severity of Punishment and Deterrence  There is little consensus that the severity of  punishment alone can reduce crime. Capital punishment does not appear to deter violent  crime Discussed further in later chapters.  Informal Sanctions: Any sanctions imposed from  outside the criminal justice system.  Sanctions administered by significant others such as  parents, peers, neighbors, and teachers may have a  greater crime reducing impact than the fear of formal legal  punishment, and may be more effective for instrumental  crimes.
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Criminal Justice Chapter 3 Slides - Chapter 3 Understanding...

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