WordMap Version 1.0.pdf - To our parents Acknowledgements We wish to express our profound gratitude to all those who helped in making this book a

WordMap Version 1.0.pdf - To our parents Acknowledgements...

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Unformatted text preview: To our parents Acknowledgements We wish to express our profound gratitude to all those who helped in making this book a reality; specially the faculty, staff and authority of University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), and all our students and well-wishers for their constant motivation and selfless support. Much needed moral support and encouragement was provided on numerous occasions by our families and relatives. We will always be grateful, to the dictionaries and test-prep books we used for the resources and concepts, which helped us build the foundation. Special thanks goes to Nasrin Jahan Bobby, who helped us compile the book online. Bangla Academy English-Bengali Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary, WordNet 3.0 by Princeton University, Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis, Barron's GRE, Word Smart by The Princeton Review, Random House Dictionary, Century Dictionary, , and many more. Preface After years of painstaking research into the factors behind life and career success, American psychometrician and researcher Johnson O'Connor concluded, "An extensive knowledge of the exact meanings of English words accompanies outstanding success in this country (USA) more often than any other single characteristic we have been able to isolate and measure", Atlantic Monthly, 1934. It’s apparent that there is a connection between a good vocabulary and overall success in life. A large vocabulary can help you communicate clearly and effectively, perform outstandingly in job interviews, flourish in job, get admission in academic programs, write better research papers; the positive impacts are endless. Coming to the context of higher studies, vocabulary is the most crucial measurement criteria. All the aspired countries for higher education, specially the North America, have developed ‘standardized tests’ and ‘language proficiency tests’ to judge examinee’s overall standard of English. Such exams are GRE, SAT, GMAT, TOEFL and IELTS, all putting significant amount of pressure on ‘vocabulary’, particularly the first mentioned two. Depressingly enough, for an aspirant with a dream for higher studies, merely having uncorrelated materials in hand, the effort of memorizing roughly 4000 new words becomes futile, since most of the available vocabulary building books are arranged in alphabetical order; being more or less like a dictionary, alphabetical arrangement makes the learning tedious, dull and hard to digest, causing it virtually impossible to retain. These factors frustrate the aspirant and unfortunately many of them quit in the middle. While preparing for our admission abroad, we passed through similar stage and felt the deficit of a properly organized book. Searching two years for the best way to learn new words, we went through all the related books available in market and read bundles of research materials. The most effective way we found, is to memorize in correlated word groups. Keeping that in mind, our attempt was to create something where all the words would be linked, and sorted according to their similarity rather than alphabetical preference. The result is the Word Map. The whole book looks like a huge map or network of words, where every word is connected, either by its synonym and antonym, or by its etymology and derivatives, making it easier to access and remember. This style specifically assists the candidates to group words in a patterned way, which is more analogous to the verbal questions of ‘standardized tests’, instead of typical vocabulary building. Uniquely and for the first time, words are put in mathematical expressions, where the user can comprehend the relations between the words just by having a look at the equations. Other distinctive features are the use of famous literary works and quotations as sentences, and translation of words in Bengali along with their English meanings, making this book an unparalleled masterpiece of its kind. We believe our efforts to make this book will keep you intrigued and absorbed till end. It is our humble call for your lenient disposition towards our unintentional errors and mistakes. All kinds of suggestions and criticisms will be greatly appreciated. We hope this book gives you a unique experience. Authors Feb 2010 We are glad to release the supporting video classes for this book. The book is protected with creative commons, that means the book and videos can be distributed as long as the authors are accredited and as long as it is non used to make profit. We would love to hear from you about the proofreading of the book, or if there is any scope of enhancement. We surely plan to launch a second and third release. We wish to continue doing what we do. But we need you to stay by our side. A little push from your side might have great positive influence on us. Authors Oct 2012 Distinctive Features of the Book 1. All words are grouped. Each and every word of this book falls under a category, whether it is a War-related word, or a type of Phobia. This classificational approach makes it easy to memorize and retain words, recollect it when it is needed, to use it in particular context using special terminologies. The word learning simply becomes quick, easy and fun. 2. Synonyms, antonyms, etymology and derivatives are used to relate the words, making them easy to master. Moreover, these relations help you learn more words at less time with less effort, and observe the same words from different perspectives. This technique is proven to be highly effective in boosting the GRE/SAT verbal scores, as it has practical and direct impact in improving the antonym, analogy and reading comprehension skills. 3. Words are put in mathematical equations. This is the most unique feature of this book. With this method, even a beginner can understand the relations between the words just by having a look at the formulas. Once you are an expert, and you know the meanings of the words, you can revise them by only viewing the formulas and avoid paying attention to details. 4. The sentences we used here are taken from world-class literary works and famous quotations. This makes the journey more fascinating, and less prosaic. The overall effect being an upgraded mental attitude, these quotations and citations will always be useful to you in versatile stages. 5. Along with English meanings of the words, Bengali meanings are provided, making it more smooth to absorb and comfortable to comprehend. Organization of the Book The book is divided into three parts. Every part has its own distinctive style of story-telling and covers a particular range of subjects. Majority of the first part talks about human mind, body and its needs. The part starts with the chapter Joy accompanied by Sorrow, then Love and Hate, Anger and Fear, and finally Confusion, all of these being primary or basic emotions. The next few chapters describe complex emotions or feelings like Annoyance, Calmness and Pride followed by Boasting, which is an outcome of pride. After discussing about emotions, we start talking about senses or Perceptions, Facial Expressions, followed by Body Types and physical fitness, and finally gestures and Motions. The next two chapters are about human needs like Sex and Money, accompanied by War and destruction, Religions and doctrines. We end this part by discussing about Deception. Part 2 is about society, professions and fields of study. The sequence of progression is like: it starts with Social Classes, followed by Apparel and Behavior, then Professions along with working Tools and Instruments. The remaining chapters of the part discusses about diverse fields of study. Our discussion on scientific disciplines starts with life sciences (Biology and Medical Science), then Earth Science, Agricultural Science, and then Physics and Chemistry, all being parts of natural sciences; followed by Politics, Economics and Anthropology under social sciences. Then we talk about the humanistic disciplines as Jurisprudence, Fine Arts (architecture), Literature, Drama, Music, and conclude this part discussing few other similar topics. The third part is organized in a slightly different manner. It’s a collection of contrasting couples, meaning each chapter consists of a pair of words having opposite meanings, such as Energetic – Lethargic, Diligent – Negligent, Astute – Asinine, Accord- Discord , Approve – Reject and so on. However the last chapter, Appraise - Apprise, is not perfectly a contrasting pair, rather it has more properties of a diabolic duo, which we will define shortly. How to Use This Book Following are the definitions and symbols of the terms we used in this book, followed by an illustrated tour on how to use this book. In could be mentioned that we defined few new terms for our ease, which might have different usage in reality. Definitions and Symbols Synonym: Words having the same meanings are called synonyms. We used ‘=’ symbol between synonyms, like in ‘ebullient = exuberant’. Synonym variant: Words having almost the same meanings are synonym variants; it’s a little different from synonyms. We used ‘~’ symbol between synonym variants, like in ‘bland ~ soothing’. Antonym: Words having opposite meanings are called antonyms. We used ‘#’ symbol between antonyms, like in ‘opaque # transparent’ Secondary and tertiary meaning: Secondary and tertiary meanings are meanings of a word that we usually do not attribute to it. We used ‘{ }’ symbol for secondary meanings and ‘[ ]’ for tertiary meanings, like in ‘bolt {abscond} [gobble]’. Derivative: A word that is derived from another word is called a derivative, like different parts of speech or plural form of a word. We used ‘>’ symbol to show derivatives, like in ‘fecundate > fecundity’. Same word root: As English language mainly came from Latin and Greek, the English words bear many parts of those languages, which are called word roots. We used ‘^’ symbol to connect words of the same root, like in ‘virago^ virile’. Diabolic duo: Two words are diabolic duos if they are pronounced in the same or almost same way but differ in meaning, spelling or both. Basically, they can be any kind of pair which confuses the reader by pronunciation, spelling or the word roots, as indicated by the term ‘diabolic’ meaning ‘devilish’. We used ‘<>’ symbol between diabolic duos, like in ‘chaste <> caste’ or in ‘emollient <> emolument’ or ‘conciliatory <> ciliated’. Relative: Relatives are words under the same category. To explain, the words which don’t fall in the above mentioned categories, but are still somehow related, are relatives. We used ‘:’ symbol between relatives, like in ‘equipoise : steady’. Got Carried Away: Although the similar words are grouped together in this book, sometimes while discussing we slightly deviated from the main topic to keep the continuity of the flow. In those cases we used the symbol ‘Ä’ in the beginning of the lines to remind that, the particular lines do not directly fall under that section. Keywords: In the beginning of each section of the chapters, you will find few words written in italics. Those words are called keywords. By looking at the keywords you will have an overview of the sequence of progression and have an idea of the words discussed in that section. Legends: Synonym Synonym variant Antonym Secondary meaning Tertiary meaning Derivative Same word root Diabolic duo Relative Got carried away = ~ # {} > ^ <> : Ä Illustrated Tour Chapter name designating the word group 1.19 Religion Keywords to guide you religion, doctrine, episcopal, unconventional religion : doctrine^ doctrinaire (doctrine)- a particular principle, position, or policy taught or advocated, as of a religion, (মতবাদ); • This doctrine is a narrow and unintelligent mode of stating the fact in Nature that what a man sows that shall he reap. — Light On The Path and Through the Gates of Gold; (doctrinaire)- a person who tries to apply some doctrine or theory without sufficient regard for practical considerations; an impractical theorist, • ( Bengali meaning Sentences from literary works , , ); This secularization is, I believe, the ultimate result of a doctrinaire attitude to faith; Ä creed = credo^ credence^ credulity : confide > confidante > confidant <> confident (creed)- any system, doctrine, or formula of religious belief, as of a denomination, ( Mathematical equations ); The fundamental relating words: ideas of this creed are also the foundations of the Christian faith. — The Life of St. Paul; creed and credo are (credo)- any creed or formula of belief, ( synonyms, credo, ; ); Some people live by credence and credulity that credo, and some would rather drink the hemlock have the same word than examined their opinions; root, credulity and (credence)- belief as to the truth of something, confide is closely ( ; ); Otherwise our people related, confide has the will lose credence, and the goblins will gain confidence and encroach. — Roc and a Hard Place; derivatives confidante (credulity)- willingness to believe or trust too and confidant, and readily, esp. without proper or adequate evidence; confidant and confident gullibility, ( ); are diabolic duos His credulity is shewn by the belief he held, that the name of a place called Ainnit in Sky was the same as the Anaitidis delubrum in Lydia. — Life Of Johnson; • • • • Sequential explanation of each word just below the equation Mnemonics – Word Memorization Tricks “Mnemonics is like magic, it can be used to perform feats of memory that are extraordinary, and impossible to carry out using the natural memory alone.”Wikipedia 'Mnemonics' is the process or technique of improving, assisting, or developing the memory. As a proficient user of mnemonic devices in daily life, the book’s first author shares his mnemonic tips and tricks to cram new words: ““While preparing for GRE, I accumulated some generic rules to remember a word. Every person has his own way of remembering things. Take your time to discover the subliminal tricks that best fits you. 1. Never memorize a new word by rote learning, means by reading the words again and again. Rather try to visualize the word in your mind. As example, the word 'copse' means 'a dense growth of bushes', now when you think the word ‘copse’, close your eyes and try to visualize it, bring the picture of the bushes you see in the gardens. Doesn’t copse also sound or feel like bushes? 2. Always try to relate the new unknown word with some other known word. Suppose the word ‘splice’ means ‘to join or tie’. Now the word ‘slice’ means ‘cut into pieces’. See the relation between the words ‘slice’ and ‘splice’. They sound very similar but means opposite. Another similar example is ‘extinct’ and ‘extant’. Try to find linkage between words in your own way. It might be frustrating it the beginning, but eventually you will find the link. There is always a link. Each person has their different and unique way of thinking. Find and use yours. You can relate with words from your mother-tongue language too. Does the word ‘copse’ remind you of any word? Think. 3. Try to amass the words together which forms a rhyme, like ‘equivocate, prevaricate, tergiversate’, all are synonyms meaning ‘be deliberately ambiguous’. This is very helpful, because if in case you forget the meaning of ‘tergiversate’, the power of rhyming will make the whole series pop out of your mind. This book lists many synonyms in rhyming pattern; highlight those words with a marker and read then like rhymes. 4. Discuss and use the words you learn. Unless you use them, you will anyways forget them sometime. And try to learn from your surroundings. Paying attention to words used around you is the best way to increase your vocabulary. And don’t be reluctant to pick up new words whenever you can. Your storage device doesn’t get full (It’s not like a computer hard disk). Rather the larger your vocabulary becomes, the easier it gets to connect a new word with words you already know, and thus remember its meaning. So your learning speed or pace should increase as your vocabulary grows and so should your memory. That’s why we gave many words which are not directly related with GRE/SAT wordlist. But eventually it helps. It’s tested. 5. A very interesting way to memorize a word is by learning the word’s root and etymology. Etymology is the study of the sources and development of words. In this technique you can learn several words at a time and find links among them. See ‘philanthropist’ and ‘philanderer’ have the same Greek root ‘phil-’, means ‘love for something’. While, the meanings are: ‘Philanthropist, someone who makes charitable donations for human welfare', and 'Philanderer, a man who likes many women and has short sexual relationships with them’. An extensive list of Phobia is provided in Chapter 1.6 (Fear). Those words are barely used in practical communication (and so are unneeded to memorize), but with those you will get acquainted with many word roots. As you become more mature and advance in vocabulary, you will gain the ability to detect words with the same roots and correlate between them. 6. Try using all of your senses to learn words. You can try learning words through pictures. Specially, learning proper nouns by this method is pretty effective. You can start listening to audio recording of words too. Try recording the words while reading with synonyms and listen to it later in leisure time. 7. Use the dictionary software called ‘Word Web’. Go to download it free. Some more helpful sites are: to For mnemonics: For etymology, meaning and pictures: , For audio wordlist: 8. Finally, practice and perseverance is the one and only way to succeed. Unless you practice, nothing is going to change. Because, practice shows us where we are committing mistakes and what are the notches that needs to be filled. I am saying it verbatim, "There is no other way than practice and revise". Remember, the goal of expanding your vocabulary is to lift you slightly above the crowd without losing the audience in words unfamiliar to them. You should be able to understand and use the words and terms encountered in your daily life, as well as prepare yourself by learning the vocabulary needed to bring you closer to your goals.”” ‘People judge you by the words you use, and knowing more words gives your mind more ways to think about things and more tools to plan and solve problems. Having a better vocabulary literally improves your ability to think Check Us Out on _______________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: 1.1 Joy rejoice, joyous, frolic • • • exult <> exalt (exult)- to show or feel a lively or triumphant joy; rejoice exceedingly; be highly elated or jubilant, (a  n , ul o ); Then I rejoiced and exulted, and was so arrayed in assurance of the time to come that I seemed to possess and taste it. — Letters of Catherine Benincasa; (exalt)- to raise in rank, honor, power, character, quality, etc.; elevate,( n o ); The poet is impressed, moved, thrilled and exalted, and pours out his song from his feelings and transfused with emotion. — George Eliot; A Critical Study of Her Life, Writings and Philosophy; to praise; extol, (uc p ); To exalt, to heal, to quicken, to inspire; — The Poems of Emma Lazarus, Volume 1; rejoice {wallow = welter} • (rejoice)- to be glad; take delight, ( n/ h / ph ); to • rejoice in another's happiness; (wallow)- to roll about or lie in water, snow, mud, dust, or the like, as for refreshment, (  ,   i"     #$ #$ o ,  %jя ' ); Carolyn Reiff, who has long been a muse of courage in my life teaching me to work instead of wallow. — Grace Slick The Biography; • (welter)- to roll, toss, or heave, as waves or the sea, (#$ #$ ( o ); • to lie bathed in or be drenched in something, esp. blood, ( k, *  ,   i...
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