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Unformatted text preview: Biology Final Notes Chapter 7- Inside the cell Plasma Membrane- selective permeability, phospholipid bilayer, membrane transport proteins. Eukaryotic- membrane bound nucleus Prokaryotic- no membrane bound nucleus Cytoplasm- high concentrations of solutes, in most habitats, it is hypertonic to environment Water enters cell via osmosis. Cell Wall- bacteria and archaea, tough fibrous layer that surrounds the plasma membrane. Made of a carbohydrate-protein complex called peptidoglycan. Glycolipids- lipid molecules that contain carbohydrate groups Chromosome- prokaryotic- consists of a large DNA molecule associated with a small number of proteins. The sequence of nitrogenous bases in DNA contains the genetic information. Gene- segment of DNA that contains info for building an RNA molecule. Nucleoid- prokaryotic chromosomes are found here. To fit in the cell, the DNA double helix coils on itself with the aid of enzymes. Plasmids- May contain one to a hundred small, usually circular, supercoiled DNA molecules. Ribosomes- manufacture proteins, large subunit and small subunit Flagella- power movement Many species contain membrane-bound storage containers that perform photosynthesis. The photosynthetic membranes arise as invaginations of the plasma membrane. Organelle- a membrane-bound compartment in the cytoplasm that contains enzymes. Cytoskeleton- protein filaments make cell skeleton. Eukaryotic cells are much larger, have an internal membrane, diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton. Diffusion of small molecules, such as ATP, amino acids, and nucleotides is slow. Compartmentalization of the cell allows incompatible chemical reactions to be separated. It increases efficiency. Nucleus- enclosed by a complex double membrane called the nuclear envelope, which is studded with openings called nuclear pores. Chromosomes are linear and consist of DNA that has ball shaped histone proteins forming a structure called chromatin. Some chromosomes that are highly compact, supercoiled structure is called heterochromatin and sections that are unwound are called euchromatin. The nucleus has a nucleolus where RNA molecules found in ribosomes are manufactured and the large and small subunits are assembled. Ribosomes- scattered through the cytosol. Comprised of one small and large subunit. Each subunit is composed of several different proteins and one large RNA molecule. The large subunit also contains two small RNA molecules....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course LBS 145 taught by Professor Luckie during the Spring '07 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '07