Nervous System 4.docx - Nervous System 4: Autonomic Nervous...

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Nervous System 4: Autonomic Nervous SystemTheautonomic nervous systemhas two branches: the sympatheticnervous systemand theparasympathetic nervoussystem. The sympatheticnervous systemis often considered the "fight or flight"system, while theparasympatheticnervous systemis often considered the "rest and digest" or "feed and breed"system.Neural Control of Organ Function and Homeostasis-We are not consciously aware of many of the important functions of the nervous system-In particular the nervous control of visceral functions to maintain our internal environment-Carried out by visceral motor neurons of theAutonomic Nervous System (ANS)Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and clinical relevancePhysiological FunctionRelated pathologyThe peripheral ANS hasthree majordivisions1.The Sympathetic Nervous System2.Parasympathetic Nervous SystemAre heavily dependent on the CNS for their functionControl many of the functions of the internal organs such as blood flow, blood pressure, urineproduction and many others3.Enteric Nervous SystemA partly autonomous nervous system which controls the function of the gastrointestinal tractCNS autonomic control centresControl of blood pressure and the cardiovascualar systemControl of renal systemControl of gastrointestinal functionControl of metabolismControl of the immune systemMediating emotional responses and stress responsesControl of the respiratory systemControl of sexual functionInteractions with sensory systemsHypertension, cardiovascular disease, heart failureKidney disease (hypertension)Iritable bowel Syndrome, ulcers, GORD, cancerObesityInflammatory diseases, cancer?Affective disorders, eg depression, anxiety, panicattacksAsthma, COPD complicationsSexual dysfunctionChronic pain, inflammation
ACh-MACh-MACh-NACh-NParasympathetic GanglionSympathetic GanglionParasympathetic GanglionNoradrenalineRegions at the base of the brain control various automatic/unconscious/visceral functions via the peripheralautonomic nerves AND the endocrine systemThe hypothalamus has a role in almost all of these functionsEmotions (limbic system) strongly effect on these visceral functionsVisceral: Referring to theviscera, the internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart orlungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines). In a figurative sense, something "visceral" is felt "deepdown."Classic View of the ANS-Sympathetic – “Fright, Flight, Fight”responses-Parasympathetic – active at “rest”BUT:Don’t always have opposing effectsDon’t usually get the whole division activated at onceSome tissues only have innervation from one divisionSome sympathetic nerves ARE active at rest

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BruceByrne

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