PBHE 413 exam 2.docx - Part 1 of 1 100.0 Points Question 1 of 5 20.0 Points Discuss the differences in clinical presentation between a person who is a

PBHE 413 exam 2.docx - Part 1 of 1 100.0 Points Question 1...

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Part 1 of 1 - 100.0 Points Question 1 of 520.0 PointsDiscuss the differences in clinical presentation between a person who is a victim of a chemical vs. a biological event.When triage is conducted, while in the field or higher level of care, differentiation in the clinical presentation between chemical and biological exposure are of utmost importance. Presentation of the exposures may also depend on the mode of exposure, respiratory, contact, injection, etc. Chemicals often interrupt nerve transmissions in the body. Chemical nerve agents can be absorbed by the skin, causing rashes and burns and local nerve reactions such as sweating and twitching, localized to the exposure area. Usually symptoms are usually immediate and can last for hours after decontamination. Often there is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and malaise in significant exposures. A liquid or respiratory exposure usually will cause much for severe symptoms, but can be possibly delayed reactions (due to exposure method). These types of exposures tend to be rapid and severe, including loss of consciousness, seizures, paralysis, excessive secretions, difficulty breathing and death. With these exposures, decontamination is often not enough and they require specific and rapid treatment to sustainlife. Nerve agents will show symptoms related to the central nervous system as this is where they attack the body. Problems with the senses (sense of smell, vision, and hearing) and muscle control are commonsymptoms. In biological agent exposure, symptoms depend on mode of exposure as well as if the exposure is to a toxin or a pathogen. Toxins are chemicals caused by biologic means. Usually as a byproduct of other organisms, plants or substances or chemically produced. Pathogens are microorganisms that cause illness or disease. They may be inhaled, ingested, injected or may be contracted through skin exposure. Many times, pathogens may be fought off by the body’s natural defenses. However, in a severe exposure these microorganisms can overpower the body. Biological agents that one can be exposed to include botulism, anthrax, Ebola, smallpox, influenzas (avian, swine), ricin, Japanese encephalitis. These clinically present differently, often with similar symptoms as common illnesses. The symptoms vary widely based on the biological agent exposed to. Influenzas may cause fever, and respiratory symptoms. They tend to look different from typical disease patterns and affects much more severe and life threatening. They rarely elicit symptoms consistent with affect to the nervoussystem. Often the hallmark differentiation is based on whether the symptoms can be traced back to the central nervous system or are more biologic in nature.
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