C2Outline.doc - CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE 9th...

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CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE 9 th I. MATTER CONSISTS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN PURE FORM AND IN COMBINATIONS CALLED COMPOUNDS Matter– anything that takes up space and has mass Mass– A. Elements-a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions B. Compounds– a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ration Ex. Sodium is metal and chlorine is gas but together they make table salt which is edible C. The Elements of Life 1. Essential elements- an element required by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce a) Four which make up 96%- Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen (HONC) b) Seven which make up other 4%- Calcium, phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium (Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg) D.Trace elements– elements required by an organism in minute quatities Ex. Iodine II. AN ELEMENT’S PROPERTIES DEPEND ON THE STRUCTURE OF ITS ATOMS A. Atom- the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element B. Subatomic Particles 1. Neutrons- neutral; found in nucleus 2. Protons- positive charge; found in nucleus i. Atomic nucleus- dense core of protons and electrons in the center of the atom 3. Electrons- negative charge; found in area outside of the nucleus C. Dalton-atomic mass unit D. Atomic Number-number of protons in an atom and tells us the number of electrons in a neutral atom E. Mass Number- sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom F. Atomic Mass- the atom’s total mass, can be approximated by the mass number G. Isotopes- two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons; behave identically in
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