Ch. 19 Outline.docx - Ch 19 Outline I The Rise of the City...

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Ch. 19 OutlineI. The Rise of the CityA. The Urban Explosion: A Global Migration1. In the waning decades of the nineteenth century, the movement from rural areas to urban industrial centers attracted millions of immigrants to American shores.2. Capitalist development in the late 1800s shattered traditional patterns of economic activity in the rural periphery. As old patterns broke down, rural areas exported, along with other raw materials, new recruits for the industrial labor force.3. Beginning in the 1870s, railroad expansion and low steamship fares gave the world’s people a newfound mobility, enabling industrialists to draw on the global population for cheap labor.4. The largest number of immigrants to the United States came from the British Isles and German-speaking lands. Ingrained racial prejudices increasingly influenced the country’s perception of immigration patterns, however. One of the classic theories divided European immigration into two distinct waves, declaring that before 1880, the majority of immigrants came from northern and western Europe, and after 1880, the majority came from southern and eastern Europe. The distinction was made to compare “old” pioneer settlers and “new” unskilled laborers.5. Would-be immigrants eager for information about the United States relied on letters from friends and relatives, advertisements, and word of mouth—sources that were not always dependable or truthful.6. Most new immigrants remained in cities, but not all newcomers came to stay—many young men worked for a year or a season and then returned to their homelands.7. Women most often came to the United States as wives, mothers, or daughters, not as single wage laborers.8. Jews, escaping violent pogroms in eastern Europe, usually came with their families and came to stay.B. Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction1. Ethnic diversity and racism played a role in dividing skilled workers from the unskilled.2. Throughout the nineteenth and into the twentieth century, members of the educated elite, as well as workers, viewed ethnic and even religious differences as racial characteristics.3. Many African Americans migrated to the cities of the North, where they hoped to escape Jim Crow laws and pursue economic opportunities.4. On the West Coast, the Asian population grew until the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act slowed Chineseimmigration to a trickle. For the first time in U.S. history, an immigrant group was excluded on the basis of race.5. On the East Coast, the volume of new immigrants from Europe in the last two decades of the century proved to be unprecedented.6.Many Americans saw the “new” immigrants as uneducated, backward, and uncouth; blue-blooded Yankees such as Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts formed an unlikely alliance with leaders of organized labor (who feared that immigrants would drive down wages) to press for immigration restriction.

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