Chapters 9-12.docx - Chapter 9 Powerpoint Notes Three...

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Chapter 9 Powerpoint Notes Three Worlds” Model “First World” – rich industrial countries “Second World”-less industrialized socialist “Third World”-non-industrialized poor countries Two reasons model does not work today Grew out of cold war politics Changes in Eastern Europe and Society Union collapse means there is no distinctive Second World Two advantages over “three worlds” model Focuses on economic development and does not lump together all lower-income nations HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES The fifty-five richest nations with the highest overall standards of living MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES The seventy-five nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES The remaining sixty-two nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor Low-Income Countries Societies are agrarian and severe poverty High-income countries have the advantage 79% of global income supporting just 18% of humanity Middle-income countries 20% of global income support 70% of humanity Leaves 12% of planet’s population with1% of global income
relative poverty Some people lack resources that are taken for granted by others Exists in every society; rich and poor Absolute poverty Lack of resources that is life-threatening Lack the nutrition necessary for health and long-term survival Rich countries – most people die after 75 Poor countries Half of all deaths occur among children under age 10 Absolute poverty is greatest in Africa High death rate of children Half the population is malnourished Worldwide 15% or 1 billion people suffer from chronic hunger 400,000 people per day or 15 million die each year from hunger At least 100 million children in poor countries provide income for their families Another 100 million leave families and live on the streets Half of all street children found in Mexico City or Rio de Janeiro Men own 90% of the land 70% of world’s 1 billion people living in absolute poverty are women 200 million-about 3% of humanity live in conditions that amount to slavery Four types of slavery Chattel slavery – one person owns another Child slavery – desperate families let children do what they can to survive Debt bondage – employers hold workers captive by paying them too little to meet their debts
Human trafficking – movement of men, women, and children from one place to another for forced labor Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.” Modernization Theory A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations Structural-functional approach Historical Perspective Theory proposes that it is affluence that demands explanation Industrialization’s productivity improved the living standards of even the poorest people Rostow’s Stages of Modernization 1. TRADITIONAL STAGE

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