Geo-1ha3-exam-review.pdf - Introduction Geography What is...

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Introduction Geography x What is where? Why there? Why care? x Physical o Study of patterns and processes of the physical world o Physical environment x Human o Study of spatial patterns and processes of the human world (people, culture, economy, settlement, political and social structure, behaviour and the significant meanings attached to the places where these activities take place) o Social environment o Description of spatial organization of people, places and human phenomena o Explanation of the processes that produce these patterns o Interpretation of what these patterns mean Key Concepts in Human Geography Concepts x Space areal extent o Absolute space: perceptual, always remains the same, making maps, mathematical projections o Relative space: objective, can be different, topological maps x Location particular position in space o Absolute (mathematical) location: latitude and longitude coordinates o Relative location: “this is close to that” o Nominal (toponym) location a place name, contested, provides locational understanding x Place identity or meaning or significance o Local and regional characteristics of culture o Location + human meaning = place o Sacred place: church, cemetaries o Sense of place personally significant attachments o Placelessness homogeneity and standardization x Distance amount of space between two or ore locations o Absolute/physical distances (feet, km, miles) o Travel distance (one hour, two hours) o Economic/communication distance (cost) o Psychological distance x Distribution distance organization o Density a measure of the number of geographic facts per unit area o Concentration/Dispersion how something is spread over an area Clustered (agglomerated) high concentration in one area
Dispersed (scattered) low concentration in one area x Pattern spatial arrangement of objects More concepts x Region - a part of the Earth’s surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct from surrounding areas according to some criteria o Human or physical or both o Interal homogeneity (uniformity) vs external heterogeneity (difference) o Regionalization the process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical geographic patterns and processes into regions (perspective matters) x Landscapes visible features of the land or area o Natural, physical or human, cultural o Cultural landscape the outcome of interactions between people and their environments, the visible imprint on the land x Diffusion the movement or spread of a geographic phenomena across space and over time o Relocation spread of ideas, cultural characteristics from one area to another via movement of people o Expansion spread of innovations within a single area in a snowballing process Hierarchical leapfrog from one to another or city to city Contagious rapid and widespread diffusion of characteristic x Perception and mental mapping o Mental map a unique personal representation of reality

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