hawaiian history - ISS 315 Dr. Handrick Lecture 09 The...

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ISS 315 Dr. Handrick Lecture 09 The Colonization of Hawai'i Readings: Kent - Hawai'i: Islands Under the Influence (pp26-121) I. The Great Mahele, or Division of Lands, in 1848 took land from the Hawai'ian people and laid the foundation of the sugar plantation economy. A. The missionaries had gained influence with the alii and eventually replaced the king's power with a Privy Council. 1. Modernization meant the eradication of the Hawai'ian language, religion, building roads and arbors to facilitate commerce and creating a government more compatible with capitalism. 2. Foreigners gained possession of the land from the ali'i and began to grow export crops to the West Coast of the U.S. for high profits. B. The Division of Lands in the Hawai'ian archipelago. 1. The Great Mahele a) 60% of the land (2,479,000 acres) went to the crown and government. Much of this land was seized from the Queen in 1893. b) 39% of the land (1,619,000 acres) went to 208 chiefs who sold off much of it to foreigners to pay off their debts --- "Remember the Peacock!" c) Less than 1% went to 11,000 commoners (kanakas). 2. Additional laws conferred the right of ownership upon foreigners. 3. The Kuleana Act (1850) granted fee-simple rights to tenants on land they already occupied, their kuleanas. Fee-simple means outright ownership and the ability to sell the land. 4. The Honolulu House Museum in Marshall, Michigan was the private residence of Judge Abner Pratt upon his return from the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands where he served as U.S. Consul. The house is said to resemble the Executive Mansion he occupied while serving in Honolulu from 1857-59. C. The impact of the land acts on the kanakas. 1. Land title, land tax and even land, as a marketable commodity were alien concepts to native Hawai'ians, much less buying and selling land. 2. Once granted title, failure to pay taxes or to comply with some facet of the law would result in foreclosure and land speculators were ready to grab declared legally vacant.
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a) Marx said that without protection, small, individually owned "pygmy" properties would quickly be absorbed into the huge property of the few - leaving the mass of people without the means of subsistence. b) Transfer of Lands (1) In 1856 only 209 of the 15,514 land claims were half by foreigners. (2) In 1886 foreigners held two-thirds of the allotted land c) Native Land Trusts have been established in the 1900s to redress the illegal actions of the 19th century. (1) The Homelands Trust has two land areas: one with 200,000 acres, the other with 1.4 million acres. These lands were illegally seized from the Queen in 1893 and returned to the State of Hawai'i under the 1959 Admission to Statehood Act. (2)
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hawaiian history - ISS 315 Dr. Handrick Lecture 09 The...

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