BB lecture 11-30 determination & differentiation

BB lecture 11-30 determination & differentiation -...

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Learning objectives • Define genomic equivalence. Describe examples in plants and animals. • Distinguish between determination and differentiation . • Be able to illustrate the difference between determination and differentiation at the transcription level • Explain how cell differentiation is influenced by cytoplasmic determinants and cell-cell signals • Distinguish between totipotent and pluripotent cells • Define cloning, and discuss problems associated with cloning animals, and possible applications of cloning
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Different cell types result from differential gene expression in cells with the same DNA Differences between cells in a multicellular organism come almost entirely from gene expression , not differences in the cells’ genomes These differences arise during development , as regulatory mechanisms turn genes off and on
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Embryonic development involves… cell division,… morphogenesis. (“creation of form”)
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Figure 21.4 Animal development Zygote (fertilized egg) Eight cells Blastula (cross section) Gastrula (cross section) Adult animal (sea star) Cell movement Gut Cell division Morphogenesis Observable cell differentiation Seed leaves Shoot apical meristem Root apical meristem Plant Embryo inside seed Two cells Zygote (fertilized egg) Plant development
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Evidence for Genomic Equivalence Many experiments support the conclusion that nearly all cells of an organism have genomic equivalence ( the same genes)
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Figure 21-5 Transverse section of carrot root 2-mg fragments Fragments cul- tured in nutrient medium; stir- ring causes single cells to shear off into liquid. Single cells free in suspension begin to divide. Embryonic plant develops from a cultured single cell. Plantlet is cul- tured on agar medium. Later it is planted in soil. A single somatic (nonreproductive)
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BB lecture 11-30 determination & differentiation -...

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