BB lecture 11-28 gene regulation - continued

BB lecture 11-28 gene regulation - continued - Chapter...

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Chapter 19 (continued) Gene regulation in eukaryotes Learning objectives Know the stages in gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells Explain what is meant by coordinate gene expression Define epigenetic inheritance. Describe “genomic imprinting”
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Figure 19-7 Control elements Enhancer Promoter Albumin gene Crystallin gene Available activators Available activators Albumin gene not expressed Albumin gene expressed Liver cell Lens cell Crystallin gene not expressed Crystallin gene expressed Liver cell nucleus Lens cell nucleus Figure 19.7 Cell type–specific transcription A particular combination of control elements can activate transcription only when the appropriate activator proteins are present
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Coordinately Controlled Genes Unlike the genes of a prokaryotic operon , coordinately controlled eukaryotic genes each have a promoter and control elements The same regulatory sequences are common to all the genes of a group , enabling recognition by the same specific transcription factors
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Figure 19.3 Stages in gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells Signal NUCLEUS Chromatin Chromatin modification: DNA unpacking involving histone acetylation and DNA demethlation Gene DNA Gene available for transcription RNA Exon Transcription Primary transcript RNA processing Transport to cytoplasm Intron Cap mRNA in nucleus Tail CYTOPLASM mRNA in cytoplasm Degradation of mRNA Translation Polypetide Cleavage Chemical modification Transport to cellular destination Active protein Degradation of protein Degraded protein 1. Chromatin modification 1. Transcription (most common reg. point) 3. RNA processing 4. RNA degradation 5. Translation 6. Protein modification 7. Protein degradation
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RNA Processing In alternative RNA splicing, different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
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Figure 19-8 Primary RNA transcript DNA or Exons RNA splicing mRNA (Alternative)
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Figure 19.3 Stages in gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells Signal NUCLEUS Chromatin Chromatin modification: DNA unpacking involving histone acetylation and DNA demethlation Gene DNA Gene available for transcription RNA Exon Transcription Primary transcript RNA processing Transport to cytoplasm Intron Cap mRNA in nucleus Tail CYTOPLASM mRNA in cytoplasm Degradation of mRNA Translation Polypetide Cleavage Chemical modification Transport to cellular destination Active protein Degradation of protein Degraded protein 1. Chromatin modification 1. Transcription (most common reg. point) 3. RNA processing 4. RNA degradation 5. Translation 6. Protein modification 7. Protein degradation
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mRNA Degradation The life span of mRNA molecules in the
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BB lecture 11-28 gene regulation - continued - Chapter...

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