Annie Yan HISTORICAL TERMS Historiography The principles, theories, methodology of scholarly historical research and presentation. History is merely an interpretation of events; there is no such thing as an “objective” history There is no ideal practice to recording history Empiricist history “Just the facts” All knowledge is derived from sense experience The “Great Man theory of history" This was what empiricist history was One man acts as a catalyst for significant historical events, inventions, wars, treaties etc. Over simplification of events Used for role models FILMMAKING TERMS Frames per second (f.p.s.) How many pictures are taken per second Renaissance or Western perspective Visual conventions of naturalistic painting Willing suspension of disbelief The viewer should be uncritical of what one sees in the film when suspending belief We do not think that Superman is real but we are willing to suspend our disbelief of him The Willing Suspension of Disbelief is built on 3 illusions: 1. Movement 2. Depth 3. Continuity Shot vm100 study sheet 1, p. 1
Annie Yan Shot of an incomplete action edited together with other shots to create a single scene. A scene is made up of several shots o Various ways/problems creating continuity and illusion of time Early attempts at continuity: 1. Contiguity editing - edit for illusion of contiguous spaces … continuous time and space , making two different spaces look like they are contiguous. 2. Cross-cutting (intercutting)- Editing between spaces for illusion of simultaneous time (most commonly used in the chase) Scene Single take of a completed action Takes/shots are edited to tell a story Dissolve Transitions used between scenes Used in “ A Trip to the Moon ” (1902) George Melies Tinting and Toning The process in which developed film was dipped into dye baths to colour them e.g day vs. night Tinting was when the light parts would be coloured Toning was when the dark parts would be coloured Proscenium Arch Style Most of the earliest films were shot in this style Each scene was shot at the same height and angle No depth to the film and scenes Vertical integration A vertically integrated firm is one controlling the production, distribution, and exhibition of a film. Vertical integration was a major strategy pursued by film companies and often a measure of their strength. Continuity editing A system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action vm100 study sheet 1, p. 2
Annie Yan Relies on matching action, screen direction and figures’ positions from shot to shot Continuity editing vs. "precision staging" Movie makers began using editing as a form of understanding space and depth Intertitles Before 1905, most films had no intertitles Titles often gave information concerning the basic situations in the simple narratives to come Two types: a. Expository titles
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- Spring '08