Exam Three Notes.docx - ExamThreeNotes Genomes&Chromosomes...

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Exam Three Notes  Genomes & Chromosomes Bacterial Genomes: Genome- genetic information, defines an organism, 2 nd  biggest thing in the cell after the  peptidoglycan layer  Mechanisms of Gene Transfer:  Fredrick Griffith- discovered  DNA-mediated transformation Bacterial Genomes: Conjugation- horizontal gene transfer (DNA transferred from one cell to other); requiring cell 2 cell contact DNA: The Genetic Material: Vertical transmission- from parent to child  Horizontal transmission- transfer of small pieces of DNA from one cell to another  o DNA- mediated transformation  o Transduction  o Conjugation (use pili)  Genome Organization: Bacteria & Archaea chromosomes range 490-9400 kb ( usually  contain circular  chromosomes)  o Human genome is +3 million kb (kilobase pairs)  Noncoding DNA o >90% of eukaryotic genomes  o >15% of prokaryotic genomes  Prokary. Genomes include  plasmids  (extrachromosomal DNA)  Plasmids  used to transfer from one cell to other; A LOT smaller than  chromosomal DNA so it is easier for plasmids to cross through the  membrane  Plasmids  contain DNA sequence that codes for protein that help the cell  to be drug resistance  Obligate ( in order for organism to survive and divide they need to being a  cell)  Intracellular organisms  have smaller genomes   Function Units of Genes:
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