Ch8-Group-Processes.docx - Chapter 8 Group Processes What...

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Chapter 8 – Group Processes What is a group? - a group is a collection of three or more people who interact with one another and are interdependent where their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another - in our evolutionary past, there was a substantial survival advantage to establishing bonds with other people; people who bonded together were better able to hunt and grow food, find mates and care for children; the need to belong has become innate and is present in all societies - those who identify most strongly with their group are more likely to engage in social action - if groups become too large, you cannot interact with all of the members - many groups attract people who are already similar before they join and groups operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members - social norms are powerful determinants of human behavior; if people violate them too often, they are shunned by other group members and potentially pressured to leave the group - most groups have well-defined social roles , which are shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave - Zimbardo prison experiment: everyone know they were in psychology experiment and that the prison was only make believe, but people embraced their roles to such an extent that their personal identities and sense of decency were lost - the same psychological processes that operated in the mock prison were also present in Abu Ghraib: the role of the prison guard, the anonymity and the dehumanization fo the prisoners all contributed to the tragic loss of decency among the Amercians in charge of the prison - study: children in grades 4-12 residing ni a rural community in Alberta were asked what their lives would be like if they woke up the next day and discovered they were the other sex; the researchers concluded that women are still constrained by expectations that they will pursue traditional occupations and that child care and housework remain their responsibility - conflict results b/c women are expected to do it all: maintain a career, raise the children, clean the house and attend to the husband’s needs - the more husbands engage in household chores and errands, the better their wives’ emotional health - group cohesiveness is defined as qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them - the group members’ concern with maintaining good relations can get in the way of finding good solutions to problems *Online notes: Formal Groups Have: Common motives and goals Roles (division of labour) Status and relationships Norms and values - Rules of praise/punishment How Groups Influence Our Behaviour - the presence of other people can mean performing a task with others who are doing the same thing you are or performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything except observing you - researchers placed a bright light at the end of a runway and timed how long it took a cockroach to
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