Chap 5 Lauren.docx - Chapter 5 Self-knowledge and the need...

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Chapter 5: Self-knowledge and the need to maintain self-esteem The nature of the self William James described the basic duality of our perception of self: o Ones thought and beliefs about oneself- the “known” or the “me” o Active processor or information- the “knower” or the “I” The known referred to as self concept o The contents of the self Our knowledge about who we are The knower aspect are referred to as self awareness o The act of thinking about ourselves Both aspects combine create identity “The Rouge test” studies show that many animals have a rudimentary self concept o Placed mirror in animals cage and realized the animal can recognize the image in the mirror is them are that they look different from the way they looked before Thought the Rouge test with humans, found that self-recognition develops at around two years old o As we grow older, this self concept becomes more complex A Childs self concept is more concrete with clear cut references with easily observable characterizes and hobbies As we mature, we place less emphasis on physical characteristics and more emphasis on our psychological states (thought and feelings), our traits or characteristics and considerations of how other people judge us Functions of the self: self –regulation Self serves an executive function, regulating people behaviour, choices and plans for the future Appear to be the only species that can imagine events that have not yet occurred and engage in long term planning o Self does this planning and exerts control over out actions Self control is a limited resource o People have a limited amount of energy to devote to self control and that spending it on one task limits the amount that can be spent on another task Going for a run makes it difficult to then immediately play basketball Self control on one task and then assessing whether this reduces their ability to exert control on a subsequent task, completely unrelated Participants who were instructed t suppress a though were worst at trying to regulate their emotions on a second task compared to people who didn’t have to suppress their thoughts in the first place
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o First task depleted the resource people use to control their behavior and feeling making it difficult to engage in subsequent act of self control Showing positive impression on another person shows more depletion (lower persistence on takes) then compared with when they are told to act neutral Self control often fails when under stress and towards the end of a day o Depleted resource Best at self -control at the begging of the day and when well rested Participants who engaged in a self-control task made more errors on a subsequent task requiring intense concentration, also showed weakened neural response in the area of that brain that monitors and detects errors The contents of the self: Self-Schemas Self-schemas: an organized body of knowledge about the self (e.g. attitudes.
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