Chapter-2-IR-as-an-Academic-Subject (2).pdf

Chapter-2-IR-as-an-Academic-Subject (2).pdf - Chapter 2 IR...

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IR: issues concerning the development and change of sovereign statehood in the context of the larger system or society of states- political relations between states and other worldinstitutions Four classical theories of IR- realism, liberalism, international society, IPE 4 debates of IR Utopianliberalism vs Realism 1. Traditional approachesvs behaviorism 2. Neorealism/neoliberalism vsMarxism 3. Established traditions vspost-positivistapproached 4. Development of Liberal ideas in IR IR came from WW1- wanted todissect whyit happenedand to prevent it from happeningagain Liberalism- believed thatthe war began throughthe autocratic leaders of heavily militarized countries notbeing checked by democratic institutions and drawninto the conflict byalliances Balance of power and alliance system had to be reformed sothe calamity wouldn'thappenagain Pure def of liberalism? Early IR hugelyinfluenced byliberalism because Wilson of the USwas a liberal democratic thinker- the weight that the US had in the international sphere at the time (plusUK) gave the theory majorcredit Believed that to reform international system, had to reform domestic structures of autonomouscountries Two of Wilson's points are basisof liberal thinking Promotionof democracy and self-determination of countries- liberal idea that democratic countries do notand will not go to war against each other 1. Creating League of Nations- idea that international institutions creates cooperation between states 2. League of Nationsis the basis of utopian liberalism- define traditional power politics (realpolitik) as an unregulated jungle where states fight forpower in order to get security and in order to prevent war, mustcreate a international organization to guarantee security and therefore peace Ideas of Immanuel Kantand Perpetual Peace (1795) Chapter 2: IR as an Academic Subject Monday, September 11, 2017 9:29 PM
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Ideas of Immanuel Kantand Perpetual Peace (1795) Normal Angell and the Great Illusion (1909)- liberalthinking of modernizationand economic independence War is not necessary after modernizationcreates a growingneed for thingsoutside the state and therefore creates economic independence- if countries are focusedon trading with each other, war becomes obsolete § Early IR = 'utopian liberalism' because these ideas were shotafter the economic development of 1920sand30sin which world trade fell instead of rose like utopianswanted, rise of authoritarianism instead of democracy, League of Nationsfailing miserably Realism andthe TwentyYears' Crisis E.H. Carr- wrote TwentyYears' Crisis and created the IR theory of realism Realism: countries naturally conflict with each other in order to defend their privileged positionsor to try to change their unprivileged positions Liberalism is utopianbecause it assumescooperation Hans J Morgenthau- wrotePolitics amongNations:the Struggle for Powerand
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