Chapter 19- Drugs for local & general anesthesia.docx

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Chapter 19: drugs from local and general anesthesia Local Anesthesia: loss of sensation to a small/ limited area, “ Sodium channel blockers” Can effect entire limb Also called: surface/regional anesthesia Given: topically or parenterally Mechanism: o Block entry of Na ions into the neuron nerve is unable to depolarize no transmission o This is non-selective blocks both motor and sensory response Sometimes given with Epinephrine this constricts BVs keeps anesthetic in area longer extends duration of action Sometimes given with NaOH bacteria make environment more acidic NaOH makes it basic neutralizes environment = better working local anesthetic Prototype drugs (locals): o Lidocaine (xylocaine) Class: Na channel blocker Given: IV/IM/Subcut/topical Uses: Nerve block (spinal/epidural anesthesia) Side effects: Uncommon cardiac arrest, Resp. depression, convulsions Other Locals: Think : “—CAINE” Esters: Benzocaine, chloroprocaine, ethylchloride (Cocaine obv not used…) Amides: Articaine, bupivacaine, Classification of local anesthetics : 2 classes: 1. Amides 2. Esters Also: miscellaneous (only a few) 1. Amides: Lidocaine a. Replaced esters Fewer side effects Longer duration b. Ethylchloride spray topical AEs are uncommon allergy to preservatives inside, like sulfites, or methylparaben, which is used as an antibacterial
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