Moore’s Law.docx - Moores Law Information systems an...

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Moore’s Law Information systems : an intelligent application of information technology along with people and procedures to do something useful. Information systems : People : Use IT to perform their job as per procedures Procedures/processes : Set of rules to combine other components DATA : Collected, processed, stored, analyzed and disseminated using IT Information technology : Software : programs that enables hardware to process data Hardware : input, output, and processing device Telecommunications : system to connect computers/hardware Information Technology Information Technology (IT) is defined as: any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information-processing needs of an organization Two basic categories of IT* : Hardware (physical devices) o Types: Input, output, CPU, Storage, Telecommunication, etc., Software (set of instructions that your hardware executes) o Types: Application and Operating System
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* Telecommunications tools can be hardware and/or software based but generally be categorized as hardware. What language does Computer Understand? Bit and Bytes Semiconductors (a substance, such as silicon dioxide) used inside most computer chips enables as well as inhibits the flow of electricity Bit (binary digit) Byte (eight bits) Letters and symbols are usually represented by 8 bits (a byte) or 16 bits 8-digit systems: ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) – o 256 available codes to identify different letters/characters. Unicode (most common UTF-16) o 65000 available codes: enough for Chinese, Japanese, Arabic… o Current standard Unicode 4.0 (supports UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32) Example: ASCII: Z = 90 decimal = 01011010 Unicode: Z = 90 decimal = 00000000 01011010 Microprocessors typically process 32 or 64 bits at a time 01100011 = 99 = 2^6 + 2^5 + 2^1 + 2^0 Bits and Bytes: a Review - Some interesting numbers: o kilobyte: 1024 bytes (2^10) o megabyte: 1,048,576 bytes (2^20) o GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB - B stands for bytes, b stands for bits (usually but not always) o Network speeds are quoted in bits/second whereas storage is mostly quoted in bytes/second Ex: 1) How big is a Page of Text? A dvd ? o 1 typewritten page = 2 KB o 1 DVD movie = 4,7GB 2) Single spaced page:
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o 60 lines o 60 characters per line, o 8 bits/character Total size: 60x60x8 = 28,800 bits [or 3600 bytes or 3.5 kilobyte (i.e., 3600/1024)] How long to transmit on a 56 kilobits/second modem? Approx. half a second 3) How big is an image? - Typical screen resolution = 1024x768 pixels - To be able to represent 256 colors 8 bits/pixel (2^8 = 256) - Total size: 1024x768x8 = 6,291,456 bits or 786,432 bytes (or 768 kilobyte ) How long to transmit on a 56Kbps (kilo bits/second) modem?
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