Chapter 7 Presentation.pdf - Cognition Thinking...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/22/2017 Cognition: Thinking, Intelligence and Language Mental images: In the brain, creating a mental image is almost the opposite of seeing an actual image. Concepts Instances of the concept Concepts Allow us to generalize. , Allow us to associate experiences and objects. Aid in memory by making it efficient. Provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience. Can cause problems when applied to people. Basic component of thinking. 3/22/2017 Formal and Natural Concepts , Concepts defined by specific rules or features and are quite rigid. Example: squares are defined as 2 dimensional objects with 4 equal sides and 4 internal 90 degree angles. Formal concepts are well defined. ' Concepts people form not as a result of a strict set of rules but the result of experiences with these concepts in the real world. Example: home Natural concepts are fuzzy. Problem Solving and Decision Problem solving: the mental process of finding an appropriate way to attain a goal When the goal is not readily available. Making 3/22/2017 3/22/2017 ll vi Hutchins: he LeastrPopular Man, Ever ..... » Levi Hutchins: Problem: wanted to wake up at 4:00 am. every day. Problem solving -- i v , 7 , , , 7 , , r , , , , _ , , invented alarm clock l, l " " — Conclusion — Levi Hutchins = evil problem. . problems and solutions Develop good ‘ ‘ over time problem—solving : g , . g strategies (sub- 3 3 Problem solvers: goals, algorithms, " Morivated to improve heuristics) past performances Evaluate solutions Motivated ‘0 make V original contributions Problem Solving Strategies Trial and Error Algorithms Heuristic Insight Algorithms: Specific steps for solving certain problems Heuristic: Guess based on experience (“rule of thumb") - Availability - Representative - Means-end analysis 3/22/2017 of a solution to a problem (“Aha!” “ moment). Thinking — complex process involving mental imagery and concepts to organize the events of daily life. Search for evidence that fits beliefs while ign ' g evidence not fitting beliefs Persist in using past problem- solving patterns Thinking about only most typical functions of 1 objects 3/22/2017 Divergent and Convergent Thinking How Can i Think More Divei'gently? Stimulating Divergent Thinking 1 Bulnflnlmhg ammunmyidemspmueh aMpuiodol fine,wvdmfndgbg ad! 1693': merits mfil zl idus are recovded. vkeeplng :Jaumal Canyajaumhowrite mweuasflnymaa lewdulo npmmthose same iduund Wu Fraewrh‘mg Mahmucmdewydfiigflukmulonhdabom a topic vial-an revising or panoheadng until I. nhhe Wu- maxim human 51 mordad in some way. Otganlzeitlatu. Mlnd «Suhjid Mapping Sunuflhawmalldeamd draw: 'mp-mhnmfm the center (a cum uhled idea. lorm'mg a wind "presen- mxau cm. W . and M mm intelligence “H! — WHERE DO I (-10 TO TAKE THE INTELLIGENCE 1151'?" 3/22/2017 General FLUID INTELLIGENCE The ability to think logically i thout the need to use p ously lea: ned knowledge. Peaks in young adulthood and (hen declines. Spearman's (3 Factor G factor: general intelligence 5 factor: specific intelligence Intelligence CRYSTALIZED INTELLIGENCE The ability to think logically using specific, previously learned knowledge. Remains more stable lhroughout adulthood. 3/22/2017 Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Verbal—linguistic Musical Logical—mathematical Visual-spatial Movement Interpersonal lntra personal Naturalist Existentialist Alfred Binet Formal tesiing first began in 1904 in France. Alfred Binet asked by the government to ideniify children who needed academic assisiance to achieve. Binet and Theodore Simon believed bright children behaved like older children and those less intelligent, like younger children. » Simon and Binet devised the concept of mental age, which is relative to one’s peers. Those who could complete tesi items at an earlier age than peers have a higher mental 3/22/2017 Lewis Terman Lewis Terman revised Binet‘s test and named it the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scales. Terman used the intelligence quotient. Computed by dividing a child’s mental age by the child’s chronological age and multiplying by 100. The Stanford-Bind no longer uses mental age. Individual performance is placed on a normal curve. comparing it with same age peers. Intelligence Tests lNTELLlGENCE TEST ‘1‘m:'r:.i.‘i3 ll) L‘t’lltlili m (liliii ul ii xiii-m llml ‘llxiilk Mill t‘llti i win mill (,ll Used during World War I to guide recruits assignments to appropria jobs‘ These tests wrongly implied that half the population had a mental age of 13 or younger. Measuring Intelligence Stanford-Binet IQ Test - Admini iationtogroups ofcliild n - Mt intelleilu The Weshsler Tests Verbal comprehension - Perceptual reasoning - Working memory - Processing speed 3/22/2017 10 3/22/2017 ubtidn: Godot Test, Bad Test? - Validity: Degree to which a test measures what it's supposed to measure 'v Reliability: Tendency of atest to ' yield the same results given the same conditions «r Standardizatiompmcess of ~ >i giving the test to a large group of ' ' people that represents the k'ixt'dKI: ’ people forwhom the test is? ’ " designed - IQ tests are often criticized for being culturally biased . Questions/answers may relate to test creators' own experiences, 7 not to those of people of other cultures, backgrounds. socioeconomic levels - Designers striving to create cullutallyfab tests 'lntcllectuill disability (intellectual developmental disorder) (formerly mental mlmtialian or llevélopmenlalb! die/aye! is a neurodevelopmeutsl . disorder and is defined in several ways. First, I e person exhibits deficits in mental abilities, which is typically associated Wllit an IQ scare approximately two standard deviations below the mean on the normal curve...._Secon , the person’s adaptive behavior IS‘slrills that allow people to live Independently, such as belng able to we at «job, communicate well with others, and grooming skills such as being able to get dressed, eat, and bathe with little or no help) is severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age. Finally, these limitations must be in in the ‘ development period.” — (Ciccarelli 8'. White) 11 7 Diagnosis of lntelleetual Diéabllity Causes of Intellectual Disability r Causes of Intellectual Disability: Unhealthy living conditions, circumstances, or injuries that affect brain development, deprived environments, and biological disorders Down syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome Fragile X syndrome i 1 Uppermost 2' of the populalt in usually '.‘.ll|h IQ of 1' or above Lunulludmal :ludy 01 1.528 '. lLll lillll 130 [n 200 3/22/2017 12 Emotioihiéil Vlntelligence System for combining symbols to , communicate and to 3/22/2017 irepresent mental activity Elements and Structure of Language 13 in ’La’fig’uage 3/22/2017 14 ...
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