Exp#5_Can Calorimetry.doc - CHEM 1405 Lone Star College-UP...

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CHEM 1405 Lone Star College -UP Soda Can Calorimeter INTRODUCTION Have you ever noticed the nutrition label located on the packaging of the food you buy? One of the first things listed on the label are the calories per serving. How is the calorie content of food determined? This activity will introduce the concept of calorimetry and investigate the caloric content of snack foods. CONCEPTS • Calorimetry • Conservation of energy • First law of thermodynamics BACKGROUND The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. This fundamental law was used by scientists to derive new laws in the field of thermodynamics— the study of heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the heat energy lost by one body is gained by another body. Heat is the energy that is transferred between objects when there is a difference in temperature. Objects contain heat as a result of the small, rapid motion (vibrations, rotational motion, electron spin, etc.) that all atoms experience. The temperature of an object is an indirect measurement of its heat. Particles in a hot object exhibit more rapid motion than particles in a colder object. When a hot and cold object are placed in contact with one another, the faster moving particles in the hot object will begin to bump into the slower moving particles in the colder object making them move faster (vice versa, the faster particles will then move slower). Eventually, the two objects will reach the same equilibrium temperature—the initially cold object will now be warmer, and the initially hot object will now be cooler. This principle is the basis for calorimetry, or the measurement of heat transfer. In the 1770s, Joseph Black (1728–1799) was one of the first scientists to conduct calorimetry experiments with different materials. He discovered that not all materials are equal when it comes to heat transfer. He concluded that
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