GEH Notes.docx - A Brief History of Microbiology...

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A Brief History of Microbiology Microbiology - study of minute organisms that are hardly visible by naked eyes - change human history, lifestyle and practices, medical history and treatment, social structure Microbes - different in appearance - bacterium, fungus, virus, parasite, alga, protozoa - diseases - alga: feel itchy while swimming in sea, neurotoxin - different sizes - human egg is one of the smallest eggs, smallest mass than all body cells, no nucleus and reproduction Black people have higher blood pressure than white people in the US 1. Can’t excrete salt as fast as white people - salt regulate water, excreted in sweat, urine senses for NaCl Bitter related to poison, silver needle used in China, beef eater in UK Sour: pregnant women, a lot of minerals, egg and vinegar Chilli, hot pain, spices poison prevent it from spoiling in hot/humid area Discovery of microbiology - Anton van Leuwenhoek - first made and used lenses to observe living microbes Spontaneous Generation vs Germ Theory - concept that change the approach in medical treatment and fermentation technology - Louis Pasteur airtight box experiment (beef broth) refuted theory of spontaneous generation - paved the way for development of Germ Theory of Disease (hygiene and antibiotic treatments) Germ Theory of Disease: Koch’s Postulates (how we know microbes cause disease) cultivate bacteria 1. microorganism must be observed in every case of the disease 2. must be isolated and grown in pure culture 3. pure culture must, when inoculated into susceptible animal, reproduce the disease 4. microorganism must be observed in and recovered from, the experimentally diseased animal Work toward controlling infections - Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis of Austria: connection between autopsies and puerperal (childbirth) fever
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- Joseph Lister (Listerine: same agent as the experiment) of England: carbolic spray and aseptic techniques (prevent contamination from microorganims) - Magic bullet (concept by Paul Ehrlich, possible to kill specific microbes without harming body) o Chemotherapy: Paul Ehrlich, discovered Salvarsan effective against syphilis o Antibiotic: Alexander Fleming 1928 discovered penicillin against Staphylococcus (gram positive) bacteria Pneumonia - lung infection - “imagine that Europeans dress as Asian and speak an Asian language!” - didn’t happen because the Mongol Empire did not occupy Europe long enough (1/5 of the world population at that time) History - Genghis Khan, acknowledged as “Khan” (ruler) of all Mongol consolidated tribes in 1206 - Mongol Empire at Genghis Khan’s death: Caspian Sea to Sea of Japan - How he died: 1. Fell off his horse, due to battle wounds and physical fatigue, possibly killed by Tanguts (but unlikely because Mongolians are good with horses) 2. Tangut princess taken as war booty hid pliers, hurt him so badly he died 3. Protracted illness possibly pneumonia (symptoms: difficulty breathing, fever before he died) - After Khan, son and successor Ogedei expansion reached its peak - Push to Persia, conflict with Song Dynasty, grandson Kublai conquered
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