FA2017_PSY2083_5_Biological Basis of Stress and Trauma Reactions_handout(1).ppt

FA2017_PSY2083_5_Biological Basis of Stress and Trauma Reactions_handout(1).ppt

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Biological Basis of Stress and Trauma Reactions PSY 2083 Fall 2017 Dr. Leah Hall
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Biological Basis of PTSD Normal physical reactions to stress: Neurotransmitters and hormones work in concert to allow the body to adapt to stress Changes are automatic/outside the conscious control of the individual Can be acute (e.g., last for a few hours) or chronic (e.g., years) Have significant impact on functioning and health
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The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Brain Spinal Cord Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic (SNS) Parasympathetic (PNS) Restoration Activated under stress
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Fear Circuits CNS Fear-inducing stimulus Peripheral receptor sensory cells Neuroendocrine cascade via projection to the hypothalamus
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Central Nervous System The brain is organized into complex systems that perceive, store, process, and react to information Different parts of the brain store information specific to the function of that part of the brain, resulting in different types of memory (e.g., SAMs, VAMs) Brain is organized in hierarchical fashion, top-down Areas of the brain most associated with stress response: Locus coeruleus (cell bodies in pons that secrete norepinephrine throughout the brain) Hippocampus Amygdala Neocortex
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Central Nervous System Hippocampus: Receives information from all areas of the sensory association cortex, the motor cortex, and the amygdala Has a coordinating function that puts information into context Relational learning Involved in short-term memory where damage results in disruption of new memories Essential in declarative memory (memory you can state in words) High levels of corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol) damage the hippocampus
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Central Nervous System Amygdala Located in the temporal lobes Responsible for emotional responses that are provoked by negative stimuli Receive input directly from the sensory cortex Important in learning the emotional significance of external events, especially social ones
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Central Nervous System Neocortex Interprets incoming stimuli
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