CHAPTER 8.docx - CHAPTER 8 ENERGY ENZYMES AND METABOLISM...

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CHAPTER 8: ENERGY, ENZYMES, AND METABOLISM - Salicylic acid, the basis of aspirin, was discovered in the bark of willows in 1763. - Aspirin has become the most widely used drug in the world. - It blocks synthesis of prostaglandin to reduce inflammation and pain. - Aspirin irreversibly inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes - COX-1 catalyzes production of prostaglandins involved in inflammation. - Drugs that inhibit only COX-2 are being developed to treat inflammation and pain without affecting blood clotting. The second law of thermodynamics states that disorder is constantly increasing in the universe. - Chemical reactions in biological systems are either - Exergonic and endergonic A chemical reaction occurs when atoms have enough energy to combine or change bonding partners Sucrose + H20= reactants Glucose + fructose = products Metabolism- sum total of all chemical reactions occurring in a biological system at a given time. Metabolic reactions involve energy changes. Energy is the capacity to do work, or the capacity of change. Forms of energy: Potential energy- energy stored as chemical bonds, concentration gradient, charge imbalance Kinetic energy- the energy of movement Energy can be converted from one form to another Types of metabolism:
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- Anabolic reactions: complex molecules are made from simple molecules, energy is required - Catabolic reactions: complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones, energy is released Often linked The energy released in catabolic reactions is used to drive anabolic reactions- to do biological work
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  • Fall '16
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