PSY CH. 7.docx - PSY 250 Chapter 7 Understanding Ethical...

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PSY 250 Chapter 7: Understanding Ethical Issues in the Research Process A. Ethical Research Practice With Human Participants 1. What ethical issues does Watson and Rayner’s “Little Albert” study raise? a. There is no mention as to whether Albert’s mother gave permission to use her baby in the study. Informed consent: process that involves informing a participant about research and obtaining consent to participate in it. The participant reads and signs a form specifying the purpose of the study, the methods to be used, the requirements for the participation, the costs and benefits of the research participation, that the participation is voluntary, and that the participant is free to withdraw at any moment without penalty. This is especially important with a minor involved. b. Is it ethical to condition fear into an 11-month old child? Short-term or long-term consequences were unknown c. Watson and Rayner were unable to reverse the effects of the conditioning process because Albert’s mother removed him from the location. 2. What ethical issues does Ax’s experiment raise? Ax used deception to spark fear in the participants. Deception is withholding information or telling them something that is false. The APA has strict guidelines on this topic 3. What could you do to address some of the ethical issues raised in the two studies reviewed? You must present your research protocol for review of ethical issues before you can conduct your research. 4. What is the Nuremberg Code, and how does it relate to current ethical guidelines? Nuremberg Code: an early code of ethical treatment of research participants developed after WWII, resulting from the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminal doctors. There are a total of 10 points in the code. Most notably, the participants in research are voluntary and they have the right to know the nature, purposes, and duration of the research. These 10 points are embodied in the APA ethical standard. 5. What did the Declaration of Helsinki add to the Nuremberg Code? Declaration of Helsinki: a declaration on ethical treatment of research participants issued by the World Medical Association in 1964. It stated that the health, welfare, and dignity of research participants be protected by researchers and that research be based on accepted research practices and existing research. It also ensures that research must be reviews by an independent group of individuals who will ensure that the research protocol adheres to accepted ethical standards.
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  • Winter '08
  • Purcell

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