Psychology 100 Unit 2.docx - Unit 2 Chapter 2 Neuroscience...

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Unit 2 Chapter 2: Neuroscience Neuroscience= the study of how the brain and nervous system affect your metal processes and behavior Neurons= cells that process and transmit information Glia Cells= brain cells that provide support functions for the neurons (ACT AS THE GLUE) Myelin= a fatty substance that insulates the parts of the axons Cell Body= the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and the DNA DNA= chemical in the nucleus that has the genetic blueprint of the organism Dendrites= receive information through receptors Axon= caries action potentials and transmit information Myelin Sheath= Covers the outside of axons to protect it ex. MS Neurotransmitters= send message to dendrites across the synapse Synapse= how neurons connect to each other o Synaptic gap= distance between the presynaptic gap and the postsynaptic gap o *Neurons have 2 branches: axons and dendrites How Neurons Fire Up o Brain uses electrochemical energy that is produced by charged particles called neurons to send neural signals o Resting potential= neuron is resting (-70mv) o Action potential= the neural impulse fired by a neuron when it reaches (-55mv) o All or none fashion= once a neuron begins to fire an action potential it fires all the way o Refractory Period= the period of time after a neuron is fired when it cant fire another one
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o Excitation= when a neurotransmitter makes the cell more positive inside and is more likely to fire an action potential o Inhibition= when it makes it more negative inside and its less likely to fire o Reuptake= neurotransmitters are recycled back into the presynaptic neuron, they are taken back so they can be reused Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACH) Excites skeletal muscles, inhibits heart action, memory Alzheimer’s Disease- deregulation of ACH Dopamine Movement, learning, attention, motivation, reward, pleasure drug, addictive Addictive disorders, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, substance abuse Serotonin Sleep, arousal, moos, eating, pain perception Depression, OCD, Anxiety Disorders, Eating Disorders, Chronic Pain Norepinephrine Sleep, arousal, mood Depression, mood disorders GABA Chief inhibitor, regulates arousal, anti-anxiety drugs Some anxiety disorders, some seizure disorders Endorphins Suppression of pain, eating, cardiovascular functioning, “runners high” Depression Nervous System= communication within the body that uses cells called neurons to convey info CNS= the brain and spinal cord PNS= all of the nervous system minus the CNS 1. Sensory neurons= transmit info from the sense organs to the CNS 2. Motor neurons= transmit commands from the brain to the muscles of the body o SNS (Somatic Nervous System)= governs all sensory and voluntary motor action o ANS (Autonomic nervous System)= governs involuntary organ function o Parasympathetic Nervous System= active during times of normal functioning o Sympathetic Nervous System= most active during stress or danger BRAIN
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Hindbrain= cerebellum, pons, medulla Midbrain= lies between hindbrain and forebrain and connects them
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