Unit 4 Notes Psych 100.docx - 5,12,13,14 Chapter 5...

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5,12,13,14 Chapter 5: Motivation and Emotion Motive: the tendency to desire and seek out positive incentives or rewards and to avoid negative outcomes Instinct: an innate impulse from within a person that directs or motivates behavior Drive reduction theory: a theory of motivation that proposes that people seek to reduce internal levels of drive, internal that pushes you Drive: an uncomfortable internal state that motivates us to reduce this discomfort through our behavior Primary drive: a drive that motivates us to maintain homeostasis in certain biological processes within the body Homeostasis: an internal state of equilibrium in the body Negative Feedback Loop: a system of feedback in the body that monitors and adjusts our motivation level so as to maintain homeostasis o Need to Drive to Drive Reducing Behavior to Homeostasis Secondary drive: a learned drive that is not directly related to biological needs Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that proposes that as we pursue the fulfillment of basic needs, we experience different types of motivation that come from both the self and the outside world Incentive: a goal or desire that we are motivated to fulfill, external pulls you Motivation: a goal directed behavior Intrinsic Motivation: motivation that comes from within the person Extrinsic Motivation: motivation that comes from outside the person Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory that humans are motivated by different needs, some of which take precedence over others Hunger and Eating:
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Set point- a particular weight that our body seeks to maintain Ghrelin- a hunger-stimulating hormone produced by the stomach; stomach contractions and promotes hunger Glucose- the form of sugar that the body burns as fuel Glycogen- a starchy molecule that is produced from excess glucose in the body, it can be thought of as the bodies stored energy reserves Insulin- a hormone produced by the pancreas that facilitates the movement of glucose from the blood into the cells of the body Cholecystokinin (CCK)- a hormone released by the small intestines that plays a role in hunger regulation, decrease in hunger Leptin- a hormone released by fat cells in the body that plays a role in hunger regulation, long term regulation, decreased hunger with large amounts of it Lateral hypothalamus- a region of the hypothalamus once thought to be the hunger center in the brain Neuropeptide Y- the most powerful hunger stimulant known Ventromedial Hypothalamus- a region of the hypothalamus that plays an indirect role in creating a feeling of satiety (feeling of being full after you eat) Overweight: having a body mass index of 25-29.9 Obesity: having a body mass index of 30 or over Basal metabolic rate: the rate at which we burn energy in our bodies when resting Bulimia nervosa: an eating disorder in which a person alternately binges on large quantities of food and then engages in some inappropriate compensatory behavior to avoid weight gain
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