Chromosome L13.docx - Continued from lecture 12 iii using...

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Continued from lecture 12 iii. using probability to determine outcomes a. Intro to probability in genetics. Segregation of allele is a chance event set of outcomes that are random, no one outcome is more likely than any other outcome (fig 14.9) Can be: fractions, decimals** percentage b. Multiplication Rule Allows for the prediction of comibined probabailitis of independent events Indepent events: occurrence of one does not affect the probability that the other will occur States as P9Ecent 1) and P(event 2) “and multiples the separate probability Probability that 1 st chcild of heterozygote parents (Aa) will be homozygous recessive (aa) .5*.5 =.25 likely chance of offstpring being homozygous recessive. c. Addition rule Prediction combined probabilities of mutually exclusive events Mutually exclusive events: cannot occur simultaneously States as p(event 1) or p(event 2) “or” add the separate probabilities Probabilities that 1 st child of heterozygote parents (aa) will be heterozygote (Aa) 25% chance of getting mom or dad and there is 25% chance of getting dad or mom so theire is 50% chance of heterozygous dominant Usuefulness of Probability Rules We’ve done momo-and dihybrid crosses with punnet square Tri hibrid cross with punnet squares would be too complicated Chromosomes 1. Chromosomal theory of inheritance Seq Morgans Experiments 2. Inheritance patters on sex chromosomes evaluate, IOV, CC sex linkage 3. Violation of Independent assortment IOV Patters of inheritance Before we start we’ve gone over… Started with mitosis and meiosis And then genetics Applying those rules to chromosome Have not figured out how to connect Mendel’s work to chromosomes 1. Chromosome theory of inheritance 1. Genes have a specific loci on chromosome 2. Chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortmen How did we figure this out? Why not each individual genes behaving indepentely A. Thomas Morgan and D. Melanogaster Early 20 th century experimental embryologist
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1860-1900 cytologists were looking at cells and found that chromosomes behave like Mendel’s heritable factors.
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