Psych5FUnit5F35FStudy5FGuide5FLearning5Fand5FIntelligence5F2016 (1).docx

Psych5FUnit5F35FStudy5FGuide5FLearning5Fand5FIntelligence5F2016 (1).docx

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Advanced Placement Psychology: Unit Three Study Guide Learning and Intelligence Unit 6 and Unit 11 (Pgs. 625-643) of Myers’ Psychology for AP Quiz 1 How Do We Learn? (Pg. 263) What are some examples of how adaptability and associative learning have changed behaviors in humans and animals? What is the distinction between operant and classical conditioning? How did a rancher use both operant and classical conditioning? What is cognitive/observational learning? Classical Conditioning (Pg. 266) How is classical conditioning defined? How did classical conditioning spark an abandonment of introspective (cognitive) psychology and the dawn of behaviorism? Who is Watson and what were the basic tenants of behaviorism? How do psychologists view behaviorism today? Pavlov’s Experiments (Pg. 266) How did Pavlov accidentally stumble upon the classical conditioning concept? In Pavlov’s study, as well as the air puff example, what is the unconditioned response (UCR), the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), the conditioned response (CR), and the conditioned stimulus (CS)? Acquisition (Pg. 268) What is acquisition in classical conditioning and how is it affected by time? What were the circumstances of, and conclusions drawn, in Domjan’s “red light district” study? Why is Tirrell “turned on” by onion smells? What are some examples of higher-order/second order conditioning? Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery (Pg. 269) How did Pavlov’s study demonstrate extinction and spontaneous recovery in the dog’s responses? Generalization (Pg. 269) How did Pavlov’s study demonstrate generalization? What are some examples of where generalization is adaptive? How does generalization create disgust or liking by association? Discrimination (Pg. 270) What is discrimination (in a conditioning context) and how does it apply to Pavlov’s study? What example is given demonstrating when discrimination is also adaptive? Pavlov’s Legacy (Pg. 271) What were the long term effects of Pavlov’s study both in terms of learning about learning and the progression of psychology as a science? Applications of Classical Conditioning (Pg. 271) How has classical conditioning been used to improve physical well-being? What were the conditions and consequences of Watson’s “Little Albert” study? What happened to Albert and Watson later in life? What long-term significance does this study have on our understanding of emotions and treatments? Operant Conditioning (Pg. 275) What is operant conditioning? How is it similar to, and different from classical conditioning? 1
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Skinner’s Experiments (Pg. 275) Who was B.F. Skinner and how did he use Thorndike’s law of effect, operant chambers, reinforcers and shaping to bring about desired behaviors in animals? Shaping Behavior (Pg. 276) How does shaping behavior work and what sorts of behaviors has it created in animals? What is a discriminative stimulus and how can it be used to shape human and animal perceptions? What implications does behavior shaping have in parenting and educational practices?
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