Anatomy bone tissue outline.doc - ANATOMY LECTURE OUTLINE...

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ANATOMY LECTURE OUTLINE SECTION 2 The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure Student Learning Outcomes - Things we should be able to do when we finish this section. 1. Understand the basic functions of the skeletal system. 2. Discuss the structure of bone tissue and compare compact and spongy bone. 3. Explain the ossification processes (how bone develops) and describe bone growth and repair. 4. Be able to classify bones and identify markings on the skeleton using anatomical terms. Basic Lecture Outline I. Bone Functions – the roles of the skeletal system. 1. Provides Support and a Structural Framework for body. 2. Protection of more delicate tissue. For example, the bony thoracic cage protects the heart and lungs; the skull protects the brain; the pelvis protects some internal organs. 3. Storage in the Body. Bone provides mineral storage in the body, mostly calcium and phosphorus. yellow bone marrow is also stored in the medullary cavity of long bones. This is primarily adipose (fat) tissue, and adipocytes store triglycerides that can be used as Energy in the body. 4. Blood cell Production. The red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) stored in the medullary cavity of some bones is responsible for making all the cells found in blood, a process called hematopoiesis . 5. Movement of Body in conjunction with articulations and the skeletal muscle attachment to bones. The Anatomy of a Long Bone - A long bone consists of several sections: Diaphysis - the long central shaft of the bone. Epiphysis - the ends of the long bone. Metaphysis - this is the area between the diaphysis and epiphysis and contains either the epiphyseal plate or the epiphyseal line. Epiphyseal Plates - are the growth plates which allow for the length-wise growth of long bones during childhood. It is composed of hyaline cartilage and once the cartilage plates ossify and fuse into the epiphysis, it becomes the bony epiphyseal line , which serves as a remnant of the growth plate. Typically long bones stop their length-wise growing between the ages of 18 and 26. Articular Cartilage - this is a type of hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of epiphyses. This provides a smooth surface which forms an articulation (joint) with another bone. This is a layer of a firm but elastic hyaline cartilage, it helps reduced friction at the site of the articulation and can also provide shock absorption to the joint and has no neural or vascular supply. Medullary Cavity - or the marrow cavity, is the central hollow of the diaphysis (shaft) where red and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored. The medullary cavity has walls composed of spongy (cancellous) bone and is lined with a thin, vascular membrane called the endosteum. Endosteum - the inner lining of the medullary cavity of long bone. It is in contact with the bone marrow.
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Periosteum - is the outer covering around bone. It has 2 layers: An outer fibrous layer composed mostly of fibroblasts that make collagen fibers; and an inner cellular layer, composed mostly of osteoprogenitor cells which differentiate into osteoblasts. The periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a
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