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Midterm Study Guide 1. Composition of the atmosphere – compose of 2 primary gases:78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, and 1% trace gases (carbon dioxide), water vapor and ozone. 2. Eratosthenes 3. Environmental temperature lapse rate – an expression of how the temperature of still air varies with altitude or the lapse rate of non-rising air. DALR is dry adiabatic lapse rate, which has no condensation, applies to a mass of air moving vertically, or rising air. MALR is moist adiabatic lapse rate which condensation is occurring, condensation release heat, it variable because it depends on the temperature and pressure and its moisture content. 4. Models of earth’s shape – earth’s shape is the geoid reflects the elliptical bulge created by the gravity, based on mean sea level and used to measure precise surface elevations, centrifugal, earth won into shape by rotation. Oblate spheroid – wider than it is tall, one axis about which it rotates, 2 poles (north and south) or points where the axis rotation emerges. 5. Latitude – (parallel) run East and West, measures North and South distant, one great circle and many small circles. Parallels are measured in angular degree. Longitude – (meridian) run North and South, measure East and West distances, coverage at the poles, and measures in angular degrees 6. Air masses – typical temperature and moisture acquired from a source region.
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