Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems.pdf

Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems.pdf

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Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive System Chapter 26
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Introduction The urinary system regulates the chemical composition of the blood and excretes nitrogenous waste. The reproductive system produces gametes for reproduction and, in the female, supports the growing embryo. Microbial diseases of these systems can result from infection from an outside source or from opportunistic infection by members of the normal microbiota.
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I. Structure of the Urinary System Urine is transported from the kidneys through ureters to the urinary bladder and is eliminated through the urethra. Valves prevent urine from flowing back to the urinary bladder and kidneys. The flushing action of urine and the acidity of normal urine have some antimicrobial value.
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B&S 25-1 Overview of the anatomy of the urinary tract.
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II. Structure and Function of the Reproductive System The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries, two uterine tubes, the uterus, the cervix, the vagina, and the external genitals. Note that the urethra is short ends within the labia.
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II. Structure and Function of the Reproductive System The male reproductive system consists of two testes, ducts, accessory glands, and the penis; seminal fluid and urine leaves the male body through the urethra.
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III. Normal Microbiota of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems The urinary bladder and upper urinary tract are sterile under normal conditions. Lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota during the reproductive years. The male urethra is normally sterile, except near the external opening.
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2 Figure 1-6 A Gram stain of Lactobacillus species illustrating gram-positive bacilli, singly and in chains. A few gram-negative staining bacilli are also present.
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IV. Bacterial Diseases of the Urinary System Urethritis (urethra), cystitis (bladder), and ureteritis (ureters) are terms describing inflammations of tissues of the lower urinary tract. Pyelonephritis (kidney) can result from lower urinary tract infections (ascending) or from systemic bacterial infections (descending). Opportunistic gram-negative bacteria from the intestines often cause urinary tract infections. Nosocomial infections following catheterization occur in the urinary system. E. coli causes more than half of these infections. >100,000 orgs/ml, or more than 1000 bacteria/ml of one species, or 100 coliforms/ml of urine, indicates an infection. Inoculum = .001, so 10 colonies X 1000 = 10,000 orgs/ml, 100 colonies X 1000 = 100,000 orgs/ml. Treatment of urinary tract infections depends on the isolation and antibiotic sensitivity testing of the causative agents. Glomerulonephritis is an immune-complex disease of the kidneys.
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B&S 25-2 Collection device to obtain urine by in and out, or straight, catheterization.
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B&S 25-3 Method for inserting a calibrated loop into urine to ensure that the proper amount of specimen adheres to the loop.
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B&S 25-4 Method for streaking with calibrated loop to produce isolated colonies and countable colony forming units.
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B&S 25-5
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