Mobility and Immobility.pdf

Mobility and Immobility.pdf - Chapter 47 Mobility and...

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Chapter 47 Mobility and Immobility Courtesy of Potter & Perry 2013
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Scientific Knowledge Base: Nature of Movement Body mechanics Coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems Alignment and balance Also refers to posture Gravity Weight force exerted on the body Friction Force that occurs in a direction opposite to movement
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Physiology and Regulation of Movements Skeletal system Provides attachments for muscles and ligaments and protects vital organs Provides leverage for movement Bones are long, short, flat, or irregular. Coordination and regulation of muscle groups depend on muscle tone; activity of antagonistic, synergistic, and antigravity muscles; and neural input to muscles.
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Skeletal System Joints connect bones. Four classifications: Synostotic, cartilaginous, fibrous, synovial
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Skeletal System (cont’d) Ligaments bind joints together and connect bones and cartilage.
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Skeletal System (cont’d) Tendons connect muscles to bone.
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Skeletal System (cont’d) Cartilage is a supportive tissue. Located in joints, thorax, trachea, larynx, nose, and ears Can be temporary or permanent
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Skeletal Muscle Muscle movement and posture Leverage Posture Muscle regulation of posture and movement Muscle tone
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Nervous System Regulates movement and posture Motor fibers from the right motor strip initiate voluntary movement for the left side of the body. Motor fibers from the left motor strip initiate voluntary movement for the right side of the body.
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Pathological Influences on Mobility Postural abnormalities Impaired muscle development Damage to central nervous system (CNS) Musculoskeletal trauma
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Nursing Knowledge Base: Safe Patient Handling Ergonomics assessment protocol Patient assessment criteria Algorithms for patient handling and movement Special equipment Back injury resource nurses “After-action review” No-lift policy
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Factors Influencing obility/Immobility Mobility Ability to move about freely Immobility Inability to move about freely Bed rest An intervention that restricts patients for therapeutic reasons
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Systemic Effects Metabolic Endocrine, calcium absorption, and GI function Respiratory Atelectasis and hypostatic pneumonia Cardiovascular Orthostatic hypotension Thrombus Musculoskeletal changes Loss of endurance and muscle mass and decreased stability and balance
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