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Learning [PSY 301] - Learning 1 a relatively long lasting...

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Learning 1. a relatively long lasting change in thought or behavior produced by environmental events a. refers to actual changes in the person b. performance: new behaviors produced by these changes 2. basic laws of learning  a. study animals & simple situations 3. two basic types of learning a.  classical conditioning learning new connections between stimuli b.  operant conditioning learning new connections between acts and their  consequences 1
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Classical Conditioning:  the processes involved when an organism learns to associate two  events 1. Ivan Pavlov, the salivary reflex in dogs a. Experimental situation: i.  before conditioning: food is presented the dog salivates ii.  during conditioning: a bell is rung food is presented the dog salivates iii. after conditioning: a bell is rung  the dog salivates b. Explanation i. food naturally causes the dog to salivate  ii. the bell becomes associated with the food iii. the dog learns that the bell predicts the coming of food iv. the dog salivates to the bell 2
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2. Terminlogy a. unconditioned stimulus (UCS) a stimulus which innately produces the  unconditioned response i. food is the UCS b.  unconditioned response (UCR) a response the innately occurs to the UCS i. salivation to the food is the UCR c.  conditioned stimulus (CS) a stimulus which is initially neutral (it never naturally  produces the conditioned  response), but which comes to produce the conditioned  response after being associated with the UCS i. the bell is the CS d.  conditioned response (CR):  a response that is made naturally to the UCS, by  never to the CS; the learned response to the CS i. salivation to the bell is the CR 3
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3. Mechanism:  classical conditioning involves learning the UCS-CS relationship a.  the UCS naturally elicits the UCR b. during conditioning, the UCS elicits the UCR in the presence of the CS c.  after many UCS-CS pairings, the CS produces the CR without the UCS i.  the CR is always weaker than the UCR ii. The CR is sometimes in the opposite direction from the UCR (for example,  the mechanism of drug tolerance) d. the CR is not voluntarily made to the CS; it is naturally elicited by it after the CS  becomes associated to the UCS 4
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4. Parameters of classical conditioning a. more pairings of the UCS and the US produce a stronger CR i.  these pairings reinforce (RNF) the UCS-CS relationship 
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