I Chapter 7 A Types of Chemical Bonds 1 Ionic Bonding a...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

I. Chapter 7 A. Types of Chemical Bonds 1. Ionic Bonding a) Transfer of valence electrons from metal to non-metals b) Ionic bonds involve the transfer of valence electrons 2. Covalent Bonding a) Sharing of valence electrons between atoms b) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of valence electrons c) 3. Metallic Bonding a) Sharing of valence electrons between metals (not covered, no one cares) B. General Properties of Ionic COmpounds 1. Compounds with ionic bonds share similar properties due to the way that ions interact 2. Physical behavior a) Hard, rigid, and brittle (i.e. NaCl) 3. Electrical Conductivity a) Typically only conduct electricity well when dissolved or melted 4. Melting and boiling points a) Very high melting and boiling points; vaporize ionic compounds form ionic pairs C. Ionic Bonding Model 1. Involves the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal a) Results in the formation of ions of opposing charge, which bond each other in a solid 2. Predict the formulas for the ionic compounds made from the pairs below a) Ca and F (1) Ca 2+ +2F - → CaF 2 b) Al and O (1) 2Al 3+ +O 2- → 2Al 2 O 3 c) Sn and Cl (1) Sn 4+ +Cl - → SnCl 4 d) Sr and N (1) 3Sr 2+ +2N 3- → Sr 3 N 2 D. General Properties of Covalent Compounds 1. Compounds with covalent bonds share similar properties due to the way that their atoms interact 2. Physical behavior a) Varied properties due to strong bonds between atoms and weak intermolecular attraction b) Network covalent compounds are very strong due to extensive bonding 3. Electrical Conductivity a) Poor electrical conductors in all states 4. Melting and boiling points a) Low melting and boiling points, except for network covalent compounds E. Covalent Bond Forces
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

1. Covalent bonds are a balance of attractive forces between the electrons and nuclei and repulsive forces between electrons and between nuclei 2. H 2 Covalent Bonds a) The distance between atoms in a covalent bonds is determined by the minimization of energy b) As the nuclei get closer the attractive energy favors the bonds c) Getting too close increase repulsive forces F. Covalent vs Polar covalent 1. In covalent bonds, the bonding electrons are shared between the atoms. But what happens if the electrons aren’t shared evenly? 2. Polar covalent bonds arise when one atoms pulls the shared electrons closer to itself than the other bound atom can. 3. The atom which draws the electrons towards itself gains a partial negative charge, which the other atom gains a partial positive charge a) Polarity arrows indicate the direction in which electrons are being pulled b) Electronegativity (EN) (1) The ability of an atom within a molecule to attract valence electrons toward itself (a) High EN - more electronegative (b) Low EN - more electropositive (2) Periodic trend (a) Decrease down a group, increase across a period (b) Up and to the right (same as IE) (3) Bond Classification (a) Bonds can be classified by EN differences (b)
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '07
  • Klindeman

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern