# I Chapter 9 Gases A Gases are strange 1 Compared to solids...

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I. Chapter 9 - Gases A. Gases are strange 1. Compared to solids and liquids, gasses behave strangely a) Gas volume varies dramatically with changes in pressure and temperature b) Gases have low viscosities (flow freely) c) Gases have low densities (mostly empty) d) Gases are miscible (mix perfectly in all proportions) e) The physical behavior of gases does not depend on the chemical identity (ideally) B. Measuring Pressure 1. A cylindrical tube (~ 1m long) containing mercury is inverted into a dish of mercury 2. The mercury in the tube descends until the pressure of the atmosphere on the external mercury equals the downward force of the column of mercury 3. At sea level this is usually about 76 cm C. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases 1. A gas consists of a large collection of individual particles that are very small (no volume) 2. Gas particles are in constant, random, straight-line, motion (except for collisions. 3. Collisions are elastic a) Their total kinetic energy (E K ) is constant 4. Between collisions, the gas particles do not influence each other in any way (act independently) D. The Ideal Gas Law 1. An ideal gas’ physical behavior can be completely described by only four variables a) Pressure (P) b) Volume (V) c) Temperature(T) d) Amount (n - moles) e) PV=nRT f) R= Universal gas constant = 0.08206 L atm/mol K E. Changing Conditions 1.

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