Midterm Study Guide.docx - Terms Black death o 1346 o...

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Terms: Black deatho1346oscourge of GodPetrarch Ad fontes oMake the world a better placeoEducational mission of displacing medieval traditions by going back to the sourcesoPhilosophy and theology increasePicoIl DuomooFlorence Cathedral o1stdome constructed in West since antiquity oconstruction began in 1296 in a Gothic styleo1367 people want a dome, architect draws one up and leaveso1418 competition, Fillipio Brunelleschi sees PantheonoBuilds scaffold which holds the second dome (thinner walls)oSymbolic of the renaissance Brunelleschi oArchitect of the Florence cathedraloStudies the Pantheon in Rome for inspirationoRenaissance man (many talents)Nicolo MachiavellioWrote “The Prince”, cynical guidebook for monarchsoOriginally a Republican from Florence o1512 Florence conquered by the Medici Family, established PrincesoMachiavelli arrested, tortured and exiledoSwitches sides and writes The PrinceNatural philosophyoReconcile Bible with natureoDone through reading books and going back to original sourcesCopernicusoScholar of math/astronomy, went to Italy as a priestoStudia Humanitatis (return to ancient sources of wisdom)oPtolmeic philosophy – stars rotate around the earth/earth is stationaryoHeliocentricity already a theory oCondemned by ChurchDevelopment of FranceCharles IXoLevied a tax on ParisoParis originally immune from tax (early agreement)
oCalled it a free gift not taxoParis refuses (offers 1/3)oThey agree on ½oKing says Noblemen are exemptoRiots (later King says it was first installment for full payment)Parlement (French)oCourts surrounding KingoLegal court of appealsoOriginally one in Paris, one for the SouthoThey broke out all over the placeoEach claims that laws made in territory are their own rules, and the King has toEstates Generalo1302oKing Philip the Fair fights the Pope, threatens schismoIncludes: Representatives of three estates (nobility, priests, people)Approves royal policies Embedded into French law (Kings forced to call Estates General to pass policies need consent)Development of EnglandHenry VIIoNoblemen not worth itoNot going to make new nobles (Nobel houses die out)oDoesn’t give titles to supportersoRules with gentlemen (no land, no private armies)oCan’t really rebel (one half of high nobles at the end of reign) Henry VIIIoKing in 1509, marries Catherine of AragonoPrince Arthur dies, supposed to marry widowoAppeals to Pope for dispensation (allow Union) - marriedo1527 no heir o42 years old, Henry wants to annul marriage (dispensation invalid)oAsks for annulment (Rome sacked by Charles V, Catherine of Aragon’s nephew)oCan’t get divorcedoAnglican Church 1534Church of England (1534)oHenry gets Parliament to declare him the head of the church in EnglandoProtestant reformationoHenry isn’t really Protestant, separation Development of SpainReconquistao700 years long process
oMuslims/Jews forced out of Spain 1492oKingdoms of Spain not united and politically dividedo

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