31-Immune systems-1.doc - Innate Immune System 1 Pathogens...

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Innate Immune System 1. Pathogens and parasites including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, worms, and other  invertebrates continually attack all animals as potential sources of nutrients. 2. Animal defenses are divided into three levels, the first two being shared by most animals.   3. First is the  integument , ranging from simple in cnidaria, to a hard  cuticle  or  exoskeleton , to our  complex skin.  In our skin, the outer thin  epidermal  layer of  stratified   epithelium  consists mostly of  continually produced  keratinocytes  that produce mostly  keratin  and then die and are sloughed off.   Cells in this layer also produce  melanin , as a permanent or induced protection against UV. 4. The internal layer of our skin is the  dermis , a  connective  tissue layer of considerable strength and  flexibility with embedded capillaries, sensory nerves, sweat glands, and hair follicles. (See Ch 31.3)
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