St._John's_University_PHS_3103_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_I_Lecture_Outline_Chapter_4_The_Tissue_L

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St. John’s UniversityDr. Emanuel J. PepitoneHuman Anatomy and Physiology I: PHS 3103Chapter 4 Lecture OutlineChapter 4: The Tissue Level of OrganizationLecture OutlineI.INTRODUCTIONA.Atissueis a group ofsimilarcells that usually have asimilarembryologicalorigin and arespecializedfor a particular function.B.The science that deals with the study of tissues is calledhistology.II.TYPES OF TISSUES AND THEIR ORIGINSA.Depending on their function and structure, the various tissues of the body areclassifiedinto four principal types:1.Epithelial tissue2.Connective tissue3.Muscle tissue4.Nervous tissueB.Most cells within a tissue remain in place, anchored to other cells,basementmembranes,orconnective tissues.III.CELL JUNCTIONSA.Cell junctionsare points of physical contact between adjacent cells.B.Cell junctions perform four (4) functions, one of which is support.C.The five most important kinds of cell junctions are:tight junctions, adherensjunctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes,andgap junctions.1.Tight junctionsare fluid tight seals.1
2.Adherens junctionsare composed ofactinfilaments and plaques ofprotein.3.Desmosomesbond the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells.4.Hemidesmosomesconnect cells to extracellular material such as thebasement membrane.5.Gap junctionsallow cells in a tissue to rapidly communicate.IV.EPITHELIAL TISSUESA.General Features of Epithelial Tissues1.Epithelial cells are arranged in sheets.2.Epithelial cells are closely packed together.3.Many cell junctions are present, providing secure attachments amongcells.4.An epithelial cell has anapicalorfree surfaceand abasal surfacethatadheres to abasement membrane.5.Epithelial tissue isavascular.6.Epithelial tissue does have a nerve supply.7.Epithelial tissue has a high mitotic rate.8.Epithelial tissue performs seven (7) functions, one of which isprotection.B.Subtype #1:CoveringandLining Epithelium1.Classificationa.According tocell arrangementandcell shape.2.Cell arrangement:simple,stratified, andpseudostratified.

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Term
Fall
Professor
PEPITONE
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