Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Pictu re 1 ANTH 200 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Pictu re 1 ANTH 200 Exam 2 Study Guide Alex Steging Primate Ecology Activity patterns Diet o major categories o morphology Ranging patterns Predation Communities Activity Patterns How do primates spend their day? o Categorizing activity o Quantifying activity Nocturnal/diurnal Nocturnal Primates o Cons Reduced social communication Reduced foraging activity o Pros Decreased food competition Pictu re 4 Decreased heat stress Decreased predation Enhanced olfactory Diurnal Primates o Cons Decreased Olfaction Increased Predation Possible Heat Stress Food Competition with Birds, Other Primates o Pros Better Visual Foraging Better Visual Communication Activity Budgets o Allows primate to compensate for calories expended with calories consumed Linked tightly to dietary quality High fiber, low calorie diet More sedentary lifestyle High-fruit diet Active lifestyle o Examples: Cathemerality o sporadic and random intervals of activity during the day or night in which food is acquired, socializing with other organisms occurs, and any other activities necessary for livelihood are performed Diet Nutrients o Macronutrients: proteins carbohydrates (sugars, starches, cellulose, chitin) fats (lipids) o Micronutrients: vitamins minerals o Secondary compounds: alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, etc.) phenolics (tannin) terpenoids (THC) Diet o Nutritional Components of Each Type of Food Fruit (also Flowers and Gum/Sap) Carbohydrates Leaves Protein Insects Protein and Fat Other Foods: Seeds Fat o Types of Diets Herbivore Frugivore (incl. seed predator) Mainly consumes fruit Folivore Mainly consumes leaves Faunivore Insectivor Carnivore Omnivore Meat Eating o Why hunt? Ecological Nutritional Social Why do primates differ in diets? o Food availability o Lifestyle o Nutritional requirements Metabolism: chemical changes in body to maintain life functions. Metabolic rate: rate of energy exchange. basal metabolic rate (BMR) o Morphological/physiological adaptations Relationships bet/ diet and morphology o Body Size o Plant Defenses Bristles, spines and hairs that make leaves and flowers difficult or painful to digest o Dietary Adaptations Fruit Eaters Broad Incisors (front teeth Low, rounded molar cusps Long small intestine Leaf Eaters Small Incisors Well-developed molar shearing crests Complex stomach Enlarged large intestine Gum Eaters Stout Incisors Claws for Clinging Long caecum Insect eaters Sharp cusps...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2009 for the course ANTH 200Lg taught by Professor Yamashita during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Pictu re 1 ANTH 200 Exam 2 Study Guide...

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