Rebellions: -> Luther to 3 men for dying for their faith Radical Reformation Princely Reformation Reformed Protestantism Religious authority : - who’s in charge of religion? The institutions - Church, State, or Self? You are in charge - No Protestant Prince till 1525, No King till 1534 Luther’s rival: - Huldrych Zwingli - Bright Middle Class Child - Swiss Parish Priest - Army Chaplain Luther vs Zwingli: - Dislike each other - Both: Salvation via Grace Import of Scripture Zwingli: Only scripture, Reject Images, Eucharist Symbolic Zwingli’s Zurich: - 1 of 13 Independent Cantons - 1499 Defeat Habsburgs - Resistance to Authority Accepted - Power Centered in Cities Reforming Zurich: - 1522: Sausage Party - 1523: Public Disputation - 1524: Ban Images - 1525: Ban Mass - Radicalism Grows Radical Reformation: - New Ideas Run Amok - All Can Have Authority - Rise of Iconoclasm - No Church, Just Evangelicals - Secular Consequences
Peasant’s war: Landowning Peasants Lead Old debate: Tithes Plunder Monasteries Feb 1525: 30,000 Peasants March: 12 Articles April: Imperial Army Crackdown Thousands Killed 12 Articles: - The community wants to be in charge of choosing pastors, not the church or the states - get rid of feudal system, based on a religious argument - requesting contract between lords and peasants - Reformation not just about reorganizing religion, but also about reorganizing secular power Scars: - Scares Rural Population - Scares Rulers - Luther, Against the murdering Thieving Hordes of Peasants 1525 - Drown Radicals in Zurich - Princely Reformation Taming the Reformation: - Stamp Out or Embrace - 1525: 3 German Princes Embrace - 1526: Diet of Speyer Give Toleration in HRE Taming the Princes: - 1529: HRE Rescind Toleration: Protestation - 1530: Augsburg Confession Define Faith - 1531: Form Defensive League Still Trouble Within Radical Response: - Anabaptists - No Infant Baptism - Personal over Organized Authority - Religious Life Over Material - Communities of the Elect: God is predetermined who is to be saved and dammed - Tradition of Martyrs
Anna Janz, 1539 Munster Rebellion: - 1533 Attracts the Exiled - Anabaptists Elected - Communal Property - Feb 1534 – June 1535: Hold City: a lot of women - After: Crackdown - Shifts Underground 1534: Beyond Munster - Rulers Take Control - Henry VIII: Act of Supremacy Makes England Protestant - Francis I: Affair of the Placards Keeps France Catholic John Calvin: Exile Controlling Religion: - Retain Old System: France, Italy & Spain - Separate Church and State: Geneva
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- Fall '11